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Hard Math #1 Explanations

# Hard Math #1 Explanations

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03/18/2014

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EXPLANATIONS FOR QUIZ I
1. This is a basic percent increase question. The formula you should use is
change
original
difference
%
100=
\u00d7
. That works out to be
%
20
100
51
100
5
5
6
=
\u00d7
=
\u00d7
\u2212
or

2. When you have questions that deal with variables in the exponent, your goal should
always be to convert all your base numbers to the same number, if possible. Dealing with
the left side of the equation first, it should look as follows:

( )
(
)
25
25
26
25
13
2
25
13
25
10
2
2
2
5
2
5
2
5
4
5
\u00d7
=
\u00d7
\u00d7
=
\u00d7
=
\u00d7
=
\u00d7
. Therefore
25
=
k
choice (C).
3. Here, remembering that the difference of two squares can always be rewritten as the
product of the sum and the difference of the two variables is key. It is good to be in the
habit of automatically rewriting the expression
2
2
n
m\u2212
as(
)(
)
n
m
n
m
\u2212
+
. If you do
that, then it is easy to see that the piece of the puzzle you are looking for is the value of
(
)
n
m+. Statement 2 gives it to you, but statement 1 does not, so the correct answer here
is (B).

4. This is a yes/no data sufficiency question, so the key here is to come up with some
examples that satisfy the parameters you have been given. For statement 1, it is easy to
come up with examples that will give you a "yes" and those that will give you a "no": if
you plug in Set P {1, 3, 5} and Set Q {10, 12, 14} you get a "no", but if you plug in Set P
{11, 13, 15} and Set Q {2, 4, 6}, you will get a "yes". For statement 2, it gets a little bit
tricky, but it is still possible to get both answers: if you plug in Set P {1, 3, 5} and Set Q
{10, 12, 14} you still get a "no", but if you keep Set P the same and change Set Q to {-
100, 12, 14} the median of Q is higher than the mean of P, but Q's mean is less than P's,
so you get a "yes". When you combine the information, however, with consecutive sets
the mean is equal to the median, so you can only come up with "no". Therefore, the

5. This one looks a lot scarier than it actually is. If you know your exponent rules well,
it should be no problem:
13
13
1
7
6
1
71
61
1
1
1
1
1
1
=
\ue004\ue005\ue003
\ue001\ue002\ue000
=
\ue004\ue005\ue003
\ue001\ue002\ue000
+
=
\ue004\ue004\ue004\ue004\ue005\ue003
\ue001\ue001\ue001\ue001\ue002\ue000
+
\u2212
\u2212
\u2212
\u2212
\u2212
.
6. This is a question that should be set up with a groups grid:
Women
Men
Total
Off-campus (1) 120
200
On-campus
(2) x
Total
400
(2) \u00bd x
Total
Statement 1 tells you how many on-campus women and how many off-campus men there
are, but not how many total students. From statement 2, you can set up a pair of
equations:
Total
x=
+
400
and
Total
x=
+21
200
. Whenever you have two equations
and two unknowns, you can solve. Therefore, the correct answer is (B).

7. The key to this question, as with many geometry questions, is to draw an additional line on the diagram. If you draw a line between points A and C, you get an equilateral triangle. Therefore the correct answer is (C).

8. Start out by finding the total number of possible runner finish arrangements:
720
1
2
3
4
5
6
=
\u00d7
\u00d7
\u00d7
\u00d7
\u00d7
. Of those arrangements, half of them have No Hope beating
Goldenrod and the other half have Goldenrod winning. Since Goldenrod never comes in
before No Hope, the correct answer is
360
720
21
=
\ue004\ue005\ue003
\ue001\ue002\ue000
or (B).
9. This one is a beast if you do the simplification. On the other hand, it can be solved
quite easily if you ballpark. If you round 80 up to 81, and 5 down to 4, you get:
)
2
(
4
9
4
)
9
(
4
+
+
which reduces to something very close to 6, the correct answer. To
prove it mathematically, the steps you take look like this:
(
)
6
36
5
4
9
9
5
4
9
4
5
4
9
1
80
5
36
4
5
4
9
1
5
4
9
5
4
4
5
4
9
1
5
4
4
5
4
9
1
80
4
5
4
9
4
80
4
=
=
\ue004\ue004\ue005\ue003
\ue001\ue001\ue002\ue000
+
+
\u00d7
=
\ue004\ue004\ue005\ue003
\ue001\ue001\ue002\ue000
+
+
+
=
\ue004\ue004\ue005\ue003
\ue001\ue001\ue002\ue000
+
+
+
=
\ue004\ue004\ue005\ue003
\ue001\ue001\ue002\ue000
+
+
=
\ue004\ue004\ue005\ue003
\ue001\ue001\ue002\ue000
+
+
=
+
+
10. As with all yes/no data sufficiency, it is a good idea to get some sense of what kind of
numbers will give you a "yes" and which will give you a "no" before you look at the
statements. In this question,
n
m
mn<
when one or the other variable is negative or when
1
0
<
<n

. All other scenarios will give us a "no". Statement 1 rules out one but not the other variable being negative, but it does not address the issue ofn being a fraction less than one. Statement 2 does even less, since we do not know if

0
<
m
. Together, the
statements still do not tell us if
1
0
<
<n
, so the correct answer is (E).
11. Here we have a permutations question with some interchangeable elements. You
should start out by finding the number of ways to arrange 7 items: 7!. Then to account
for the interchangeable items, you divide by the number of interchangeable items
factorial, so the result looks as follows:
1
2
1
2
1
2
3
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
\u00d7
\u00d7
\u00d7
\u00d7
\u00d7
\u00d7
\u00d7
\u00d7
\u00d7
\u00d7
\u00d7
\u00d7
. After you reduce the
fraction, you should get
210
5
6
7
=
\u00d7
\u00d7
or (C).

12. Use the points youcan identify to eliminate answer choices. Since the curve passes
through the origin, when x = 0, the result should equal 0 also. By that logic, you can
cross off (B) and (E). Then, in order to have the curve dip below the x-axis to the right of
the y-axis as it does, some positive values of x must result in a negative value for the
expression. The only remaining answer that could ever do that is the correct answer, (D).

13. Statement 1 is certainly not enough information on its own. Nor is statement 2-- it
simply tells you that all of the variables are exponents of 2 (i.e. 2, 4, 8, 16, etc.).
Together, however, you need to slow down and watch out. Is there only one possible
value for d? Yes. First list all exponents of 2 less than 170: 2, 4, 8, 16, 32, 64, 128. Is
there any way to combine four of the numbers to add up to 170 without using 128? If
you add up 8 + 16 + 32 + 64, you will see that even that is too small. Therefore, d must
equal 128 and the correct answer is (C).

14. First find the total number of three topping combos that are possible:
35
1
2
3
5
6
7
=
\u00d7
\u00d7
\u00d7
\u00d7
.
Now find out how many of those combine anchovies and pineapple: A, P, and 5 choices
for the third topping makes a total of 5 illegal combinations. So how many legal
combinations are there? 35 - 5 = 30 or (E).

15. Since this is a yes/no type data sufficiency question, take stock of the question before
you dive into the statements. To understand what is really being asked of you, it is
helpful to rearrange the terms in the left side of the inequality to match better those on the

right:
\ue004\ue005\ue003
\ue001\ue002\ue000
\ue004\ue005\ue003
\ue001\ue002\ue000
>
\ue004\ue005\ue003
\ue001\ue002\ue000
\ue004\ue005\ue003
\ue001\ue002\ue000
\ue004\ue004\ue005\ue003
\ue001\ue001\ue002\ue000
e
c
db
ec
db
f
a
. When yo u do that rearrangement, it becomes clear that
the only difference between the two sides is thef
aterm. At this point, it becomes clear
that statement 1 does nothing to answer the question. For the above inequality to hold
true,
1
>
f
a
if the right side of the inequality is positive,
1
<
f
a
if it is negative. To see
how this works, set
1
\u2212
=
\ue004\ue005\ue003
\ue001\ue002\ue000
\ue004\ue005\ue003
\ue001\ue002\ue000
ec
db
and then 1. Statement 2 ends up telling us very little,
because we can choose values forf
athat result in numbers on either side of 1. (
1
<
f
a
when one or both variables is negative). Taking both statements together does little to
resolve any of these issues, so the correct answer is (E).