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EXPLANATIONS FOR GMAT QUIZ II

1. This question is a good candidate for a ratio box (convert the fractions talked about in

the question to ratios). There will actually be two boxes--the first for the initial

amounts of berries and the second for the final amo unts. The boxes look as follows:

Initial

Ratio

Multiplier

Actual

Blueberries

2

Raspberrie

s

1

Total

3

Final

Ratio

Multiplier

Actual

Blueberries

2

Raspberries

5

Total

7

Then to fill in the actual columns, plug in your answer choices. If you are paying

attention, there is an easy way to ballpark the answer choice\u2014the answers are the

initial total amount, so the final total is the answer choice + 12. That amount must be

divisible by 7. The only answer choice for which that is true is (A), the correct one.

You can test that by plugging it into the boxes.

2. Before you look at the statements, get your base numbers to match:

y

x

yx

3

22

82=

. To

evaluate statement 1, plug in the right half of the equation from the statement into the

expression in the question:

8

3

8

3

3

8

3

3

2

2

2

2

22

=

=

=

\u2212

+

+

y

y

y

y

y

x

. Therefore, statement 1 is

sufficient to solve. Statement 2 gives you no information about x.

3. The median is the middle number, and since all but one bill are the same amount, the median is the same as the bill amount of the majority bills. So there are 5 months of bills at $32 and one month at 4 x $32. The average can be found this way:

() ()48

632

9

6

32

4

32

32

32

32

32

=

=

+

+

+

+

+

. The correct answer is (B).

4. The issue with statement 1 is that you don't know whether m = 2 or -2. But don't stop

here. If you plug both values into the expression in the question, you will see that

both result in the same value. Statement 2 tells you that m = -2 and is therefore

sufficient. The correct answer is (D).

5. This one requires some canny thinking. P is the same as the factorial function.

Factorials add a factor of ten, in other words, a zero, every fifth integer. You get 6

zeroes beginning with 30! and a seventh zero with 35!, so the largest integer that has

only 6 zeros is 34!, so the correct answer is (C).

6. When n equals a multiple of 5 or one less than a multiple of 5, n (n + 1) is divisible by 5. Two- fifths of all numbers fit that description. Since our range is a round set of 95 consecutive numbers, the probability that a number chosen at random from that set will fit the criteria required by the question is 2/5.

7. Try plugging in numbers to this yes/no data sufficiency. For statement 1, if x = 8 and y = 1, you will get a "yes". On the other hand, if you plug in x = 1/8 and y = 1/3, you will get a "no", so statement 1 is not sufficient. For statement 2, the same first pair of numbers will work, giving a "yes", and x = -8 and y = 1 give you a "no". Therefore, statement 2 is insufficient. Even together the statements are not sufficient, although the range of numbers that will give you a "no" have been significantly decreased. But if you plug in x = 1/2 and y = 1/6, for example, you do get a "no". Therefore, the

correct answer is (E). In general, for yes/no questions that have inequalities with

exponents such as this one, exceptions can almost always be found between 0 and 1.

8. Don't panic when you see a question like this that looks like it involves ridiculous

amounts of calculating! There is always a pattern--all you have to do is find it. First

of all, you can cross off answers (A), (C), and (E). For (A) or (E) to be correct, 332

would have to be divisible by 4, but it can't be (do you see why?). And for (C) to be

correct, 332 would have to be even, but it won't be (again, can you explain why?).

Now cycle through the first few exponents of 3 to find the pattern: 30 has a remainder

of 1, 31 has a remainder of 3, 32 has a remainder of 1, and 33 has a remainder of 3. So

the pattern that emerges is that all even exponents of 3 have a remainder of 1 when

divided by 4, and all odd exponents have a remainder of 3. Since 32 is even, the

correct answer is (B).

9. One way of interpreting the question is to realize that they are asking you to find the

least common multiple of 350 and 280. To do that, first find the prime factorization

of both numbers:

7

5

2

350

2

\u00d7

\u00d7

=

and

7

5

2

280

3

\u00d7

\u00d7

=

. To then find the least

common multiple, just take the largest exponent of each of the factors of the two

numbers and multiply the result:

1400

7

5

2

2

3

=

\u00d7

\u00d7

. So the correct answer is (B).

10. In order to find both the maximum values of the expression, we need to know the

maximum of both x and y, found in statement 2. In order to find the minimum, if x

could equal 0 (implied by its range covering both negative and positive number), then

we know the minimum of the expression too: no matter what y equals, the result will

be 1. We know all of this from statement 2, so the correct answer is (B).

11. As always when you have variables in your answer choices, you want to plug in. A good number to choose is r = 2. If you plug it into the question correctly, your target answer should be 1/2. Only answer choice (A) gives you 1/2 when you plug in 2 for r.

12. As usual with yes/no questions, you want to plug in to see what is going on. Here,

however, the easiest way to see what is going on in the question is to start with

statement 1, and rather than plug in a legal value for y, find out what happens at the

boundary of the inequality. In other words, plug in y = 1/2, even though that is not

allowed by the statement. If you do, you will find that x also equals 1/2 and that k =

35. Therefore, if

21

>

y

,

35

>

k

. Even if you don't see thatk has to be greater than

35, you know that is either going to be greater or less than 35--either way, statement 1

is sufficient. Statement 2 follows a similar logic: pretend for a moment that

y

x=. If

the two variables are equal, then they both equal 1/2. This brings us back to the

findings of statement 1, therefore statement 2 must also be correct. This means that

the correct answer is (D).

13. This is a straightforward yes/no data sufficiency question. Pick numbers for your

variables. In statement 1, if m = -1 and therefore n = 2, you get a "no". If m = -5 and

n = -2, you get a "yes". Therefore statement 1 is not sufficient. In statement 2, to get

a negative base number to result in a positive number, the exponent must be even, but

could be either positive or negative (try m = -1, k = 1, and n = either 2 or -2).

Therefore the statement is insufficient. The problems remain when the two

statements are combined, so the correct answer is (E).

14. The key to this question is to factor the denominators. (Don't do the long division!)

Statement I's denominator is just 28. Any exponent of 2, no matter how large, can

never create a non-terminating decimal. The other two statements have 3 as one of

their factors. Since that 3 does not cancel into the numerator, the fractions will never

terminate. Therefore the correct answer is (A).

15. In order to answer this question, we need to know what proportion of the staff belong to each division in order to know how to weight the average. Statement 2 gives you that proportion, so the correct answer is (B).

16. First of all, you need to recognize that

151

\u2212

=q

p

. Replace

q

q

p

1

151

1

:

+

\u2212

. From

here, the best way to proceed is to realize that it no longer matters whatq actua lly equals. Instead, you can plug in whatever number you please. If you glance at your answer choices, it should become immediately apparent that there will be a lot of calculation involved if you do not choose your number well, so this is an occasion where you could break one of the rules for choosing your number and set

1

=

q

--it is

okay to do that once you have hit an advanced level, see that using 1 will make your

life significantly easier, and check all five answer choices. You will have to make

sure that you don't get more than one answer choice working out, but the ease of

calculation makes the risk worth taking. If you do plug in 1, you get150

149as your

target answer. Only answer choice (A) gives you that result.

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