Welcome to Scribd, the world's digital library. Read, publish, and share books and documents. See more
Standard view
Full view
of .
0 of .
Results for:
P. 1
Hard Math #2 Explanations

# Hard Math #2 Explanations

Ratings:

4.0

(1)
|Views: 745|Likes:

### Availability:

See more
See less

03/18/2014

pdf

text

original

EXPLANATIONS FOR GMAT QUIZ II

1. This question is a good candidate for a ratio box (convert the fractions talked about in
the question to ratios). There will actually be two boxes--the first for the initial
amounts of berries and the second for the final amo unts. The boxes look as follows:

Initial
Ratio
Multiplier
Actual
Blueberries
2
Raspberrie
s
1
Total
3
Final
Ratio
Multiplier
Actual
Blueberries
2
Raspberries
5
Total
7

Then to fill in the actual columns, plug in your answer choices. If you are paying
attention, there is an easy way to ballpark the answer choice\u2014the answers are the
initial total amount, so the final total is the answer choice + 12. That amount must be
divisible by 7. The only answer choice for which that is true is (A), the correct one.
You can test that by plugging it into the boxes.

2. Before you look at the statements, get your base numbers to match:
y
x
yx
3
22
82=
. To
evaluate statement 1, plug in the right half of the equation from the statement into the
expression in the question:
8
3
8
3
3
8
3
3
2
2
2
2
22
=
=
=
\u2212
+
+
y
y
y
y
y
x
. Therefore, statement 1 is
sufficient to solve. Statement 2 gives you no information about x.

3. The median is the middle number, and since all but one bill are the same amount, the median is the same as the bill amount of the majority bills. So there are 5 months of bills at \$32 and one month at 4 x \$32. The average can be found this way:

() ()48
632
9
6
32
4
32
32
32
32
32
=
=
+
+
+
+
+
. The correct answer is (B).

4. The issue with statement 1 is that you don't know whether m = 2 or -2. But don't stop
here. If you plug both values into the expression in the question, you will see that
both result in the same value. Statement 2 tells you that m = -2 and is therefore
sufficient. The correct answer is (D).

5. This one requires some canny thinking. P is the same as the factorial function.
Factorials add a factor of ten, in other words, a zero, every fifth integer. You get 6
zeroes beginning with 30! and a seventh zero with 35!, so the largest integer that has
only 6 zeros is 34!, so the correct answer is (C).

6. When n equals a multiple of 5 or one less than a multiple of 5, n (n + 1) is divisible by 5. Two- fifths of all numbers fit that description. Since our range is a round set of 95 consecutive numbers, the probability that a number chosen at random from that set will fit the criteria required by the question is 2/5.

7. Try plugging in numbers to this yes/no data sufficiency. For statement 1, if x = 8 and y = 1, you will get a "yes". On the other hand, if you plug in x = 1/8 and y = 1/3, you will get a "no", so statement 1 is not sufficient. For statement 2, the same first pair of numbers will work, giving a "yes", and x = -8 and y = 1 give you a "no". Therefore, statement 2 is insufficient. Even together the statements are not sufficient, although the range of numbers that will give you a "no" have been significantly decreased. But if you plug in x = 1/2 and y = 1/6, for example, you do get a "no". Therefore, the

correct answer is (E). In general, for yes/no questions that have inequalities with
exponents such as this one, exceptions can almost always be found between 0 and 1.

8. Don't panic when you see a question like this that looks like it involves ridiculous
amounts of calculating! There is always a pattern--all you have to do is find it. First
of all, you can cross off answers (A), (C), and (E). For (A) or (E) to be correct, 332
would have to be divisible by 4, but it can't be (do you see why?). And for (C) to be
correct, 332 would have to be even, but it won't be (again, can you explain why?).
Now cycle through the first few exponents of 3 to find the pattern: 30 has a remainder
of 1, 31 has a remainder of 3, 32 has a remainder of 1, and 33 has a remainder of 3. So
the pattern that emerges is that all even exponents of 3 have a remainder of 1 when
divided by 4, and all odd exponents have a remainder of 3. Since 32 is even, the

9. One way of interpreting the question is to realize that they are asking you to find the
least common multiple of 350 and 280. To do that, first find the prime factorization
of both numbers:
7
5
2
350
2
\u00d7
\u00d7
=
and
7
5
2
280
3
\u00d7
\u00d7
=
. To then find the least
common multiple, just take the largest exponent of each of the factors of the two
numbers and multiply the result:
1400
7
5
2
2
3
=
\u00d7
\u00d7
. So the correct answer is (B).

10. In order to find both the maximum values of the expression, we need to know the
maximum of both x and y, found in statement 2. In order to find the minimum, if x
could equal 0 (implied by its range covering both negative and positive number), then
we know the minimum of the expression too: no matter what y equals, the result will
be 1. We know all of this from statement 2, so the correct answer is (B).

11. As always when you have variables in your answer choices, you want to plug in. A good number to choose is r = 2. If you plug it into the question correctly, your target answer should be 1/2. Only answer choice (A) gives you 1/2 when you plug in 2 for r.

12. As usual with yes/no questions, you want to plug in to see what is going on. Here,
however, the easiest way to see what is going on in the question is to start with
statement 1, and rather than plug in a legal value for y, find out what happens at the
boundary of the inequality. In other words, plug in y = 1/2, even though that is not
allowed by the statement. If you do, you will find that x also equals 1/2 and that k =

35. Therefore, if
21
>
y
,
35
>
k
. Even if you don't see thatk has to be greater than
35, you know that is either going to be greater or less than 35--either way, statement 1
is sufficient. Statement 2 follows a similar logic: pretend for a moment that
y
x=. If

the two variables are equal, then they both equal 1/2. This brings us back to the
findings of statement 1, therefore statement 2 must also be correct. This means that

13. This is a straightforward yes/no data sufficiency question. Pick numbers for your
variables. In statement 1, if m = -1 and therefore n = 2, you get a "no". If m = -5 and
n = -2, you get a "yes". Therefore statement 1 is not sufficient. In statement 2, to get
a negative base number to result in a positive number, the exponent must be even, but
could be either positive or negative (try m = -1, k = 1, and n = either 2 or -2).
Therefore the statement is insufficient. The problems remain when the two
statements are combined, so the correct answer is (E).

14. The key to this question is to factor the denominators. (Don't do the long division!)
Statement I's denominator is just 28. Any exponent of 2, no matter how large, can
never create a non-terminating decimal. The other two statements have 3 as one of

their factors. Since that 3 does not cancel into the numerator, the fractions will never
terminate. Therefore the correct answer is (A).

15. In order to answer this question, we need to know what proportion of the staff belong to each division in order to know how to weight the average. Statement 2 gives you that proportion, so the correct answer is (B).

16. First of all, you need to recognize that
151
\u2212
=q
p
. Replace
q
q
p
1
151
1
:
+
\u2212
. From

here, the best way to proceed is to realize that it no longer matters whatq actua lly equals. Instead, you can plug in whatever number you please. If you glance at your answer choices, it should become immediately apparent that there will be a lot of calculation involved if you do not choose your number well, so this is an occasion where you could break one of the rules for choosing your number and set

1
=
q
--it is

okay to do that once you have hit an advanced level, see that using 1 will make your
life significantly easier, and check all five answer choices. You will have to make
sure that you don't get more than one answer choice working out, but the ease of

calculation makes the risk worth taking. If you do plug in 1, you get150
149as your