Reversible Programmable Logic Array (RPLA) using Fredkin &Feynman Gates for Industrial Electronics and Applications
Himanshu Thapliyal* and Hamid R. Arabnia**
*Center for VLSI and Embedded System Technologies,International Institute of Information Technology, Hyderabad-500019, India**The University of Georgia, Department of Computer Science,415 Graduate Studies Research Center, Athens, Georgia 30602-7404, U.S.A(email@example.com,firstname.lastname@example.org)
— In recent years, reversible logic has emerged as apromising computing paradigm having application in low powerCMOS, quantum computing, nanotechnology, and opticalcomputing. The classical set of gates such as AND, OR, andEXOR are not reversible. In this paper, the authors haveproposed reversible programmable logic array (RPLA)architecture using reversible Fredkin and Feynman gates. Theproposed RPLA has n inputs and m outputs and can realize mfunctions of n variables. In order to demonstrate the design of RPLA, a 3 input RPLA is designed which can perform any 2
functions using the combination of 8 min terms (2
).Furthermore, the application of the designed 3 input RPLA isshown by implementing the full adder and full subtractorfunctions through it.
ReversibleLogic, Programmable Logic Array.
This section provides an effective background of reversiblelogic with its definition and the motivation behind it.
Researchers like Landauer have shown that for irreversiblelogic computations, each bit of information lost generateskTln2 joules of heat energy, where k is Boltzmann’s constantand T the absolute temperature at which computation isperformed . Bennett showed that kTln2 energy dissipationwould not occur, if a computation is carried out in a reversibleway , since the amount of energy dissipated in a systembears a direct relationship to the number of bits erased duringcomputation. Furthermore, voltage-coded logic signals haveenergy of Esig = ½CV
, and this energy gets dissipatedwhenever switching occurs in conventional (irreversible) logicimplemented in modern CMOS technology. It has been shownthat reversible logic helps in saving this energy using chargerecovery process . Reversiblecircuits are those circuits thatdo not lose information. Reversible computation in a systemcan be performed only when the system comprises of reversiblegates. These circuits can generate unique output vector fromeach input vector, and vice versa, that is, there is a one-to-onemapping between input and output vectors. Thus, an NXNreversible gate can be represented as
Where Iv and Ov represent the input and output vectorsrespectively.
Classical logic gates are irreversible since input vectorstates cannot be uniquely reconstructed from the output vector states.There are a number of existing reversible gates such as Fredkingate[3,4,5], Toffoli Gate (TG) [3, 4] and TSG gate.
B. ProposedContribution and Motivation Behind the Work
The reversible logic operations do not erase (lose)information and dissipate very less heat. Thus, reversiblelogic is likely to be in demand in high speed power awarecircuits. Reversible circuits are of high interest in low-powerCMOS design , optical computing , quantum computing and nanotechnology . The most prominent applicationof reversible logic lies in quantum computers. A quantumcomputer can be viewed as a quantum network (or a family of quantum networks) composed of quantum logic gates; eachgate performs an elementary unitary operation on one, two ormore two–state quantum systems called qubits. Each qubitrepresents an elementary unit of information corresponding tothe classical bit values 0 and 1. Any unitary operation isreversible, hence quantum networks effecting elementaryarithmetic operations such as addition, multiplication andexponentiation cannot be directly deduced from their classicalBoolean counterparts (classical logic gates such as AND orOR are clearly irreversible).Thus, Quantum Arithmetic mustbe built from reversible logic components .Furthermore, programmable logic arrays (PLAs) have anumber of medical and industrial applications, such asultrasonic flaw detection. The reasons stem from the fact thatPLAs are considerably faster than high end DSPs. Theyprovide the cost effective solution to the exponentiallyincreasing needs of industrial electronics. Thus, seeing thebenefits of programmable logic array and reversible logic inindustrial electronics and applications, the authors proposethe reversible programmable logic array (RPLA) designedusing reversible gates. In order to demonstrate the proposedarchitecture of RPLA, a 3 input RPLA which can perform any2
functions using the combination of 8 min terms (2
) is alsodesigned. The applications of the designed 3 input RPLA isshown by implementing 1-bit full adder and 1-bit subtractorfunctions through it. The basic goals in reversible logic are tominimize the number of reversible gates and garbage outputs.Thus, the proposed RPLA is designed in an optimal manner