Pitch Attitude and Airspeed in Level Flight, SlowCruise Speed.
Pitch Attitude Decreasing and Airspeed Increasing—Indicates Need to Increase Pitch.
The pitch attitude of an airplane is the angle between thelongitudinal axis of the airplane and the actual horizon.In level ight, the pitch attitude varies with airspeed andload. For training purposes, the latter factor can normallybe disregarded in small airplanes. At a constant airspeed,there is only one specic pitch attitude for level ight. Atslow cruise speeds, the level ight attitude is nose-high with
indications as in
; at fast cruise speeds, the levelight attitude is nose-low.
showsthe indications for the attitude at normal cruise speeds.The instruments that directly or indirectly indicate pitch onthe Primary Flight Display (PFD) are the attitude indicator,altimeter, vertical speed indicator (VSI), airspeed indicator(ASI), and both airspeed and altitude trend indicators.
The attitude indicator gives the pilot a direct indication of the pitch attitude. The increased size of the attitude displayon the EFD system greatly increases situational awarenessfor the pilot. Most attitude indicators span the entire widthof the PFD screen.The aircraft pitch attitude is controlled by changing thedeection of the elevator. As the pilot pulls back on thecontrol yoke causing the elevator to rise, the yellow chevronwill begin to show a displacement up from the articialhorizon line. This is caused by the AHRS unit sensing thechanging angle between the longitudinal plane of the earthand the longitudinal axis of the aircraft.The attitude indicator displayed on the PFD screen is arepresentation of outside visual cues. Rather than rely onthe natural horizon visible during visual ight rules (VFR)ight, the pilot must rely on the articial horizon of thePFD screen.During normal cruise airspeed, the point of the yellowchevron (aircraft symbol) will be positioned on the articialhorizon. Unlike conventional attitude indicators, the EFDattitude indicator does not allow for manipulating the positionof the chevron in relationship to the articial horizon. Theposition is xed and therefore will always display the pitchangle as calculated by the AHRS unit.