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Instrument Flying Handbook - Chapter 05 Section II

Instrument Flying Handbook - Chapter 05 Section II

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Published by: stwigger on Nov 12, 2011
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The previous chapters have laid the foundation for instrument
ying. The pilot’s ability to use and interpret the informationdisplayed and apply corrective action is required to maneuverthe aircraft and maintain safe ight. A pilot must recognizethat each aircraft make and model own may require adifferent technique. Aircraft weight, speed, and congurationchanges require the pilot to vary his or her technique in orderto perform successful attitude instrument ying. A pilot mustbecome familiar with all sections of the Pilot’s OperatingHandbook/Airplane Flight Manual (POH/AFM) prior toperforming any ight maneuver.Chapter 5–II describes basic attitude instrument flightmaneuvers and explains how to perform each one byinterpreting the indications presented on the electronicight display (EFD). In addition to normal ight maneuvers,“partial panel” ight will be addressed. With the exception of the instrument takeoff, all ight maneuvers can be performedon “partial panel” with the Attitude Heading ReferenceSystem (AHRS) unit simulated or rendered inoperative.
Airplane BasicFlight Maneuvers
Chapter 5, Section IIUsing an Electronic Flight Display
Figure 5-47.
Pitch Attitude and Airspeed in Level Flight, SlowCruise Speed.
Figure 5-48.
Pitch Attitude Decreasing and Airspeed Increasing—Indicates Need to Increase Pitch.
Straight-and-Level Flight
Pitch Control
The pitch attitude of an airplane is the angle between thelongitudinal axis of the airplane and the actual horizon.In level ight, the pitch attitude varies with airspeed andload. For training purposes, the latter factor can normallybe disregarded in small airplanes. At a constant airspeed,there is only one specic pitch attitude for level ight. Atslow cruise speeds, the level ight attitude is nose-high with
indications as in
Figure 5-47 
; at fast cruise speeds, the levelight attitude is nose-low.
[Figure 5-48]
Figure 5-49
showsthe indications for the attitude at normal cruise speeds.The instruments that directly or indirectly indicate pitch onthe Primary Flight Display (PFD) are the attitude indicator,altimeter, vertical speed indicator (VSI), airspeed indicator(ASI), and both airspeed and altitude trend indicators.
 Attitude Indicator 
The attitude indicator gives the pilot a direct indication of the pitch attitude. The increased size of the attitude displayon the EFD system greatly increases situational awarenessfor the pilot. Most attitude indicators span the entire widthof the PFD screen.The aircraft pitch attitude is controlled by changing thedeection of the elevator. As the pilot pulls back on thecontrol yoke causing the elevator to rise, the yellow chevronwill begin to show a displacement up from the articialhorizon line. This is caused by the AHRS unit sensing thechanging angle between the longitudinal plane of the earthand the longitudinal axis of the aircraft.The attitude indicator displayed on the PFD screen is arepresentation of outside visual cues. Rather than rely onthe natural horizon visible during visual ight rules (VFR)ight, the pilot must rely on the articial horizon of thePFD screen.During normal cruise airspeed, the point of the yellowchevron (aircraft symbol) will be positioned on the articialhorizon. Unlike conventional attitude indicators, the EFDattitude indicator does not allow for manipulating the positionof the chevron in relationship to the articial horizon. Theposition is xed and therefore will always display the pitchangle as calculated by the AHRS unit.
Figure 5-49.
Various Pitch Attitudes (Right), Aircraft Shown in Level Flight.
Figure 5-50.
Pitch Indications for Various Attitudes (1° through 5°).
Figure 5-51.
Pitch Illustrated at 10
The attitude indicator only shows pitch attitude and doesnot indicate altitude. A pilot should not attempt to maintainlevel ight using the attitude indicator alone. It is importantfor the pilot to understand how small displacements both upand down can affect the altitude of the aircraft. To achievethis, the pilot should practice increasing the pitch attitudeincrementally to become familiar with how each degree of pitch changes the altitude.
[Figures 5-50
In bothcases, the aircraft will slow and gain altitude.The full height of the chevron is approximately 5° andprovides an accurate reference for pitch adjustment. It isimperative that the pilot make the desired changes to pitchby referencing the attitude indicator and then trimming off any excess control pressures. Relieving these pressures willallow for a more stabilized ight and will reduce pilot workload. Once the aircraft is trimmed for level ight, the pilotmust smoothly and precisely manipulate the elevator controlforces in order to change the pitch attitude.To master the ability to smoothly control the elevator, a pilotmust develop a very light touch on the control yoke. Thethumb and two ngers are normally sufcient to move thecontrol yoke. The pilot should avoid griping the yoke witha full st. When a pilot grips the yoke with a full st, thereis a tendency to apply excess pressures, thus changing theaircraft attitude.Practice making smooth, small pitch changes both up anddown until precise corrections can be made. With practicea pilot will be able to make pitch changes in 1° increments,smoothly controlling the attitude of the aircraft.The last step in mastering elevator control is trim. Trimmingthe aircraft to relieve any control pressures is essentialfor smooth attitude instrument ight. To accomplish this,momentarily release the control yoke. Note which way theaircraft pitch attitude wants to move. Grasp the control yokeagain and then reapply the pressure to return the attitudeto the previous position. Apply trim in the direction of thecontrol pressure. Small applications of trim will make largechanges in the pitch attitude. Be patient and make multiplechanges to trim, if necessary.Once the aircraft is in trim, relax on the control yoke asmuch as practicable. When pressure is held on the yoke,
unconscious pressures are applied to the elevator and ailerons
which displaces the aircraft from its desired ight path. If theaircraft is in trim, in calm, non-turbulent air, a pilot should beable to release the control yoke and maintain level ight forextended periods of time. This is one of the hardest skills tolearn prior to successfully ying in instrument meteorologicalconditions (IMC).

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