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six sigma

six sigma

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Published by: api-3840098 on Oct 18, 2008
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03/18/2014

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Mekong Capital Gi\u1edbi Thi\u1ec7u v\u1ec1 Six Sigma
Trang 1 tr\u00ean 17
Gi\u1edbi Thi\u1ec7u v\u1ec1 Six Sigma
6.11.2004

Ghi ch\u00fa: B\u00e1o c\u00e1o n\u00e0y l\u00e0 t\u00e0i li\u1ec7u gi\u1edbi thi\u1ec7u kh\u00e1i qu\u00e1t v\u1ec1 Six Sigma d\u00e0nh cho c\u00e1c doanh nghi\u1ec7p Vi\u1ec7t Nam ch\u1ec9 nh\u1eb1m m\u1ee5c\u0111\u00edch h\u01b0\u1edbng d\u1eabn. Ch\u01b0\u01a1ng tr\u00ecnh tr\u1ee3 gi\u00fap c\u1ee7a Mekong Capital cho c\u00e1c doanh nghi\u1ec7p m\u00e0 Qu\u1ef9 Doanh Nghi\u1ec7p Mekong\u0111ang\u0111\u1ea7u t\u01b0 bao g\u1ed3m vi\u1ec7c h\u1ed7 tr\u1ee3 \u0111\u1ec3 t\u0103ng c\u01b0\u1eddng n\u0103ng l\u1ef1c c\u1ee7a doanh nghi\u1ec7p trong vi\u1ec7c kh\u00f4ng ng\u1eebng c\u1ea3i ti\u1ebfn quy tr\u00ecnh kinh doanh. Mekong Capital hi\u1ec7n\u0111ang c\u00f3 hai chuy\u00ean vi\u00ean Six Sigma Black Belt ph\u1ee5 tr\u00e1ch vi\u1ec7c h\u1ed7 tr\u1ee3 c\u00e1c doanh nghi\u1ec7p trong l\u0129nh v\u1ef1c n\u00e0y.

1. Six Sigma l\u00e0 g\u00ec?
1.1\u0110\u1ecbnh ngh\u0129a

Six Sigma l\u00e0 m\u1ed9t h\u1ec7 ph\u01b0\u01a1ng ph\u00e1p c\u1ea3i ti\u1ebfn quy tr\u00ecnh d\u1ef1a tr\u00ean th\u1ed1ng k\u00ea nh\u1eb1m gi\u1ea3m thi\u1ec3u t\u1ef7 l\u1ec7 sai s\u00f3t hay khuy\u1ebft t\u1eadt\u0111\u1ebfn m\u1ee9c 3,4 l\u1ed7i tr\u00ean m\u1ed7i tri\u1ec7u kh\u1ea3 n\u0103ng g\u00e2y l\u1ed7i b\u1eb1ng c\u00e1ch x\u00e1c\u0111\u1ecbnh v\u00e0 lo\u1ea1i tr\u1eeb c\u00e1c ngu\u1ed3n t\u1ea1o n\u00ean dao\u0111\u1ed9ng (b\u1ea5t\u1ed5n) trong c\u00e1c quy tr\u00ecnh kinh doanh. Trong vi\u1ec7c\u0111\u1ecbnh ngh\u0129a khuy\u1ebft t\u1eadt, Six Sigma t\u1eadp trung v\u00e0o vi\u1ec7c thi\u1ebft l\u1eadp s\u1ef1 th\u00f4ng hi\u1ec3u t\u01b0\u1eddng t\u1eadn c\u00e1c y\u00eau c\u1ea7u c\u1ee7a kh\u00e1ch h\u00e0ng v\u00e0 v\u00ec th\u1ebf c\u00f3 t\u00ednh\u0111\u1ecbnh h\u01b0\u1edbng kh\u00e1ch h\u00e0ng r\u1ea5t cao.

H\u1ec7 ph\u01b0\u01a1ng ph\u00e1p Six Sigma d\u1ef1a tr\u00ean ti\u1ebfn tr\u00ecnh mang t\u00ean DMAIC: Define (X\u00e1c\u0110\u1ecbnh), Measure (\u0110o L\u01b0\u1eddng), Analyze (Ph\u00e2n T\u00edch), Improve (C\u1ea3i Ti\u1ebfn) v\u00e0 Control (Ki\u1ec3m So\u00e1t).\u0110\u1ec3 t\u00ecm hi\u1ec3u th\u00eam v\u1ec1 ti\u1ebfn tr\u00ecnh n\u00e0y, vui l\u00f2ng tham kh\u1ea3o m\u1ee5c s\u1ed1 3 c\u1ee7a t\u00e0i li\u1ec7u n\u00e0y v\u1ec1 DMAIC.

Six Sigma kh\u00f4ng ph\u1ea3i l\u00e0 m\u1ed9t h\u1ec7 th\u1ed1ng qu\u1ea3n l\u00fd ch\u1ea5t l\u01b0\u1ee3ng, nh\u01b0 ISO-9001, hay l\u00e0 m\u1ed9t h\u1ec7 th\u1ed1ng ch\u1ee9ng nh\u1eadn ch\u1ea5t l\u01b0\u1ee3ng. Thay v\u00e0o\u0111\u00f3,\u0111\u00e2y l\u00e0 m\u1ed9t h\u1ec7 ph\u01b0\u01a1ng ph\u00e1p gi\u00fap gi\u1ea3m thi\u1ec3u khuy\u1ebft t\u1eadt d\u1ef1a tr\u00ean vi\u1ec7c c\u1ea3i ti\u1ebfn quy tr\u00ecnh.\u0110\u1ed1i v\u1edbi\u0111a s\u1ed1 c\u00e1c doanh nghi\u1ec7p Vi\u1ec7t Nam,\u0111i\u1ec1u n\u00e0y c\u00f3 ngh\u0129a l\u00e0 thay v\u00ec t\u1eadp trung v\u00e0o c\u00e1c

\u0111\u1ec1x\u01b0\u1edbng ch\u1ea5t l\u01b0\u1ee3ng v\u1ed1n \u01b0u ti\u00ean v\u00e0o vi\u1ec7c ki\u1ec3m tra l\u1ed7i tr\u00ean s\u1ea3n ph\u1ea9m, h\u01b0\u1edbng t\u1eadp trung \u0111\u01b0\u1ee3c chuy\u1ec3n
sang c\u1ea3i thi\u1ec7n quy tr\u00ecnh s\u1ea3n xu\u1ea5t\u0111\u1ec3 c\u00e1c khuy\u1ebft t\u1eadt kh\u00f4ng x\u1ea3y ra.
1.2 C\u00e1c ch\u1ee7 \u0111\u1ec1 ch\u00ednh c\u1ee7a Six Sigma
M\u1ed9t s\u1ed1 ch\u1ee7 \u0111\u1ec1 ch\u00ednh c\u1ee7a Six Sigma\u0111\u01b0\u1ee3c t\u00f3m l\u01b0\u1ee3c nh\u01b0 sau:
\u2022
T\u1eadp trung li\u00ean t\u1ee5c v\u00e0o nh\u1eefng y\u00eau c\u1ea7u c\u1ee7a kh\u00e1ch h\u00e0ng;
\u2022
S\u1eed d\u1ee5ng c\u00e1c ph\u01b0\u01a1ng ph\u00e1p\u0111o l\u01b0\u1eddng v\u00e0 th\u1ed1ng k\u00ea\u0111\u1ec3 x\u00e1c\u0111\u1ecbnh v\u00e0\u0111\u00e1nh gi\u00e1 m\u1ee9c dao\u0111\u1ed9ng trong
quy tr\u00ecnh s\u1ea3n xu\u1ea5t v\u00e0 c\u00e1c qui tr\u00ecnh qu\u1ea3n l\u00fd kh\u00e1c;
\u2022
X\u00e1c\u0111\u1ecbnh c\u0103n nguy\u00ean c\u1ee7a c\u00e1c v\u1ea5n\u0111\u1ec1;
\u2022
Nh\u1ea5n m\u1ea1nh vi\u1ec7c c\u1ea3i ti\u1ebfn quy tr\u00ecnh\u0111\u1ec3 lo\u1ea1i tr\u1eeb dao\u0111\u1ed9ng trong quy tr\u00ecnh s\u1ea3n xu\u1ea5t hay c\u00e1c qui
tr\u00ecnh qu\u1ea3n l\u00fd kh\u00e1c gi\u00fap gi\u1ea3m thi\u1ec3ul\u1ed7i v\u00e0 t\u0103ng s\u1ef1 h\u00e0i l\u00f2ng c\u1ee7a kh\u00e1ch h\u00e0ng;
\u2022
Qu\u1ea3n l\u00fd ch\u1ee7 \u0111\u1ed9ng\u0111\u1ea7y tr\u00e1ch nhi\u1ec7m trong vi\u1ec7c t\u1eadp trung ng\u0103n ng\u1eeba sai s\u00f3t, c\u1ea3i ti\u1ebfn li\u00ean t\u1ee5c v\u00e0
kh\u00f4ng ng\u1eebng v\u01b0\u01a1n t\u1edbi s\u1ef1 ho\u00e0n h\u1ea3o;
\u2022
Ph\u1ed1i h\u1ee3p li\u00ean ch\u1ee9c n\u0103ng trong c\u00f9ng t\u1ed5 ch\u1ee9c; v\u00e0
\u2022
Thi\u1ebft l\u1eadp nh\u1eefng m\u1ee5c ti\u00eau r\u1ea5t cao.
1.3 C\u00e1c c\u1ea5p\u0111\u1ed9 trong Six Sigma
\u201cSigma\u201d c\u00f3 ngh\u0129a l\u00e0\u0111\u1ed9 l\u1ec7ch chu\u1ea9n (standard deviation) trong th\u1ed1ng k\u00ea, n\u00ean Six Sigma\u0111\u1ed3ng ngh\u0129a v\u1edbi
s\u00e1u\u0111\u01a1n v\u1ecb l\u1ec7ch chu\u1ea9n.
C\u1ea5p\u0110\u1ed9 Sigma
L\u1ed7i ph\u1ea7n Tri\u1ec7u
L\u1ed7i ph\u1ea7n Tr\u0103m
M\u1ed9t Sigma
690.000,0
69,0000%
Hai Sigma
308.000,0
30,8000%
Ba Sigma
66.800,0
6,6800%
B\u1ed1n Sigma
6.210,0
0,6210%
N\u0103m Sigma
230,0
0,0230%
S\u00e1u Sigma
3,4
0,0003%
M\u1ee5c ti\u00eau c\u1ee7a Six Sigma l\u00e0 ch\u1ec9 c\u00f3 3,4 l\u1ed7i (hay sai s\u00f3t) tr\u00ean m\u1ed7i m\u1ed9t tri\u1ec7u kh\u1ea3 n\u0103ng g\u00e2y l\u1ed7i. N\u00f3i c\u00e1ch
kh\u00e1c,\u0111\u00f3 l\u00e0 s\u1ef1 ho\u00e0n h\u1ea3o\u0111\u1ebfn m\u1ee9c 99,99966%.
Mekong Capital Gi\u1edbi Thi\u1ec7u v\u1ec1 Six Sigma
Trang 2 tr\u00ean 17

Trong khi ph\u1ea7n l\u1edbn c\u00e1c doanh nghi\u1ec7p s\u1ea3n xu\u1ea5t t\u01b0 nh\u00e2n\u1edf Vi\u1ec7t Nam hi\u1ec7n\u0111ang\u1edf m\u1ee9c kho\u1ea3ng Ba Sigma ho\u1eb7c th\u1eadm ch\u00ed th\u1ea5p h\u01a1n th\u00ec trong m\u1ed9t v\u00e0i tr\u01b0\u1eddng h\u1ee3p, m\u1ed9t d\u1ef1 \u00e1n c\u1ea3i ti\u1ebfn quy tr\u00ecnh \u00e1p d\u1ee5ng c\u00e1c nguy\u00ean t\u1eafc Six Sigma c\u00f3 th\u1ec3 tr\u01b0\u1edbc ti\u00ean nh\u1eafm\u0111\u1ebfn m\u1ee9c B\u1ed1n hay N\u0103m Sigma v\u1ed1n c\u0169ng\u0111\u00e3 mang l\u1ea1i k\u1ebft qu\u1ea3 gi\u1ea3m thi\u1ec3u khuy\u1ebft t\u1eadt r\u00f5 r\u1ec7t.

C\u0169ng c\u1ea7n l\u00e0m r\u00f5 r\u1eb1ng Six Sigma\u0111o l\u01b0\u1eddng c\u00e1c kh\u1ea3 n\u0103ng g\u00e2y l\u1ed7i ch\u1ee9 kh\u00f4ng ph\u1ea3i c\u00e1c s\u1ea3n ph\u1ea9m l\u1ed7i. M\u1ed9t s\u1ea3n ph\u1ea9m c\u00e0ng ph\u1ee9c t\u1ea1p s\u1ebd c\u00f3 nhi\u1ec1u kh\u1ea3 n\u0103ng b\u1ecb l\u1ed7i h\u01a1n. V\u00ed d\u1ee5, c\u0169ng l\u00e0\u0111\u01a1n v\u1ecb s\u1ea3n ph\u1ea9m nh\u01b0ng kh\u1ea3 n\u0103ng g\u00e2y l\u1ed7i trong m\u1ed9t chi\u1ebft \u00f4-t\u00f4 nhi\u1ec1u h\u01a1n so v\u1edbi m\u1ed9t chi\u1ebfc k\u1eb9p gi\u1ea5y.

D\u01b0\u1edbi\u0111\u00e2y l\u00e0 m\u1ed9t v\u00ed d\u1ee5 cho c\u00e1ch t\u00ednh s\u1ed1 kh\u1ea3 n\u0103ng g\u00e2y l\u1ed7i trong qui tr\u00ecnh s\u1ea3n xu\u1ea5t s\u1ea3n ph\u1ea9m gh\u1ebf g\u1ed7: C\u00f4ng ty A ph\u1ea3i s\u1ea3n xu\u1ea5t 5\u0111\u01a1n h\u00e0ng cho kh\u00e1ch h\u00e0ng, m\u1ed7i\u0111\u01a1n h\u00e0ng c\u00f3 m\u1ed9t m\u1eb7t h\u00e0ng l\u00e0 gh\u1ebf g\u1ed7 (5 chi\u1ebfc). S\u1ed1 kh\u1ea3 n\u0103ng g\u00e2y l\u1ed7i cho m\u1ed9t m\u1eb7t h\u00e0ng gh\u1ebf g\u1ed7 \u0111\u01b0\u1ee3c x\u00e1c\u0111\u1ecbnh nh\u01b0 sau:

\u2022
V\u1eadt li\u1ec7u g\u1ed7 l\u00e0m gh\u1ebf\u0111\u00e3\u0111\u00fang ch\u01b0a? (1 kh\u1ea3 n\u0103ng)
\u2022
\u0110\u1ed9 \u1ea9m c\u1ee7a g\u1ed7n\u1eb1m trong ph\u1ea1m vi ti\u00eau chu\u1ea9n cho ph\u00e9p (1 kh\u1ea3n\u0103ng)
\u2022
Gh\u1ebf \u0111\u01b0\u1ee3c l\u00e0m theo \u0111\u00fang k\u00edch c\u1ee1 kh\u00e1ch h\u00e0ng y\u00eau c\u1ea7u (1 kh\u1ea3n\u0103ng)
\u2022
Gh\u1ebf kh\u00f4ng b\u1ecb h\u01b0 h\u1ecfng ( 1 kh\u1ea3 n\u0103ng)
\u2022
Gh\u1ebf \u0111\u01b0\u1ee3c s\u01a1n\u0111\u00fang m\u00e0u s\u1eafc ( 1 kh\u1ea3 n\u0103ng)
\u2022
Gh\u1ebf \u0111\u01b0\u1ee3c\u0111\u00f3ng g\u00f3i\u0111\u00fang qui c\u00e1ch (1 kh\u1ea3 n\u0103ng)
T\u1ed5ng s\u1ed1 kh\u1ea3 n\u0103ng g\u00e2y l\u1ed7i = s\u1ed1 l\u01b0\u1ee3ng gh\u1ebf X s\u1ed1 kh\u1ea3 n\u0103ng = 5 X 6 = 30 kh\u1ea3 n\u0103ng
1.4 T\u1eadp trung v\u00e0o c\u00e1c ngu\u1ed3n g\u00e2y dao\u0111\u1ed9ng

D\u01b0\u1edbi c\u00e1ch nh\u00ecn c\u1ee7a Six Sigma, m\u1ed9t quy tr\u00ecnh kinh doanh th\u01b0\u1eddng\u0111\u01b0\u1ee3c tr\u00ecnh b\u00e0y d\u01b0\u1edbi d\u1ea1ng h\u00e0m s\u1ed1 thu g\u1ecdn Y=f(X), trong\u0111\u00f3 k\u1ebft qu\u1ea3 \u0111\u1ea7u ra (Y)\u0111\u01b0\u1ee3c chi ph\u1ed1i b\u1edfi m\u1ed9t s\u1ed1 bi\u1ebfn hay t\u00e1c nh\u00e2n\u0111\u1ea7u v\u00e0o (X). N\u1ebfu ch\u00fang ta gi\u1ea3 \u0111\u1ecbnh r\u1eb1ng c\u00f3 m\u1ed1i li\u00ean h\u1ec7 gi\u1eefa k\u1ebft qu\u1ea3 (Y) v\u1edbi c\u00e1c t\u00e1c nh\u00e2n ti\u1ec1m n\u0103ng (X), ch\u00fang ta c\u1ea7n thu th\u1eadp v\u00e0 ph\u00e2n t\u00edch s\u1ed1 li\u1ec7u d\u1ef1a tr\u00ean c\u00e1c c\u00f4ng c\u1ee5 ki\u1ec3m tra v\u00e0 k\u1ef9 thu\u1eadt th\u1ed1ng k\u00ea trong Six Sigma\u0111\u1ec3 ch\u1ee9ng minh gi\u1ea3 thuy\u1ebft n\u00e0y. N\u1ebfu mu\u1ed1n thay \u0111\u1ed5i k\u1ebft qu\u1ea3 \u0111\u1ea7u ra, ch\u00fang ta c\u1ea7n t\u1eadp trung v\u00e0o vi\u1ec7c x\u00e1c \u0111\u1ecbnh v\u00e0 ki\u1ec3m so\u00e1t c\u00e1c t\u00e1c nh\u00e2n h\u01a1n l\u00e0 ki\u1ec3m tra s\u00e0ng l\u1ecdc \u1edf \u0111\u1ea7u ra. M\u1ed9t khi\u0111\u00e3 c\u00f3\u0111\u1ee7 hi\u1ec3u bi\u1ebft v\u00e0 c\u00f3 bi\u1ec7n ph\u00e1p ki\u1ec3m so\u00e1t t\u1ed1t c\u00e1c t\u00e1c nh\u00e2n X, ch\u00fang ta c\u00f3 th\u1ec3 d\u1ef1\u0111o\u00e1n m\u1ed9t c\u00e1ch ch\u00ednh x\u00e1c k\u1ebft qu\u1ea3 Y. N\u1ebfu kh\u00f4ng theo c\u00e1ch tr\u00ean, ch\u00fang ta ch\u1ec9 t\u1eadp trung n\u1ed5 l\u1ef1c v\u00e0o c\u00e1c ho\u1ea1t\u0111\u1ed9ng d\u01b0 th\u1eeba (Non Value-Added) nh\u01b0 ki\u1ec3m tra, tr\u1eafc nghi\u1ec7m v\u00e0 s\u1eeda l\u1ed7i s\u1ea3n ph\u1ea9m.

1.5 C\u1ea3i ti\u1ebfn qui tr\u00ecnh

M\u1ee5c\u0111\u00edch c\u1ee7a Six Sigma l\u00e0\u0111\u1ec3 c\u1ea3i thi\u1ec7n c\u00e1c qui tr\u00ecnh sao cho c\u00e1c v\u1ea5n\u0111\u1ec1 khuy\u1ebft t\u1eadt v\u00e0 l\u1ed7i kh\u00f4ng x\u1ea3y ra thay b\u1eb1ng vi\u1ec7c ch\u1ec9 t\u00ecm ra c\u00e1c gi\u1ea3i ph\u00e1p t\u1ea1m th\u1eddi ng\u1eafn h\u1ea1n cho c\u00e1c v\u1ea5n\u0111\u1ec1. Ch\u1ec9 khi nguy\u00ean nh\u00e2n g\u00e2y sai l\u1ec7ch, nh\u01b0\u0111\u00e3\u0111\u1ec1 c\u1eadp\u1edf ph\u1ea7n tr\u01b0\u1edbc,\u0111\u00e3\u0111\u01b0\u1ee3c x\u00e1c\u0111\u1ecbnh th\u00ec qui tr\u00ecnh m\u1edbi c\u00f3 th\u1ec3 \u0111\u01b0\u1ee3c c\u1ea3i thi\u1ec7n do\u0111\u00f3 sai l\u1ec7ch kh\u00f4ng l\u1eadp l\u1ea1i trong t\u01b0\u01a1ng lai.

V\u00ed d\u1ee5, n\u1ebfu m\u1ed9t nh\u00e0 s\u1ea3n xu\u1ea5t \u0111\u1ed3g\u1ed7 \u1edfVi\u1ec7t Nam \u0111ang g\u1eb7p ph\u1ea3i t\u00ecnh tr\u1ea1ng ch\u1eadm ti\u1ebfn \u0111\u1ed9 \u1edf kh\u00e2u ki\u1ec3m tra ch\u1ea5t l\u01b0\u1ee3ng c\u1ee7a c\u00f4ng\u0111o\u1ea1n l\u1eafp r\u00e1p ho\u00e0n thi\u1ec7n s\u01a1 b\u1ed9 b\u1edfi v\u00ec h\u1ecd th\u01b0\u1eddng xuy\u00ean nh\u1eadn\u0111\u01b0\u1ee3c c\u00e1c chi ti\u1ebft sai h\u1ecfng t\u1eeb c\u00e1c b\u1ed9 ph\u1eadn ch\u00e0 nh\u00e1m v\u00e0 ph\u1ea3i t\u00e1i ch\u1ebf ch\u00fang:

\u2022
Gi\u1ea3i ph\u00e1p\u0111i\u1ec3n h\u00ecnh: C\u00e2n\u0111\u1ed1i l\u1ea1i chuy\u1ec1n b\u1eb1ng vi\u1ec7c cho th\u00eam c\u00f4ng nh\u00e2n v\u00e0o ki\u1ec3m tra v\u00e0 t\u00e1i ch\u1ebf.
\u2022
Gi\u1ea3i ph\u00e1p Six Sigma:\u0110i\u1ec1u tra v\u00e0 ki\u1ec3m so\u00e1t c\u00e1c t\u00e1c nh\u00e2n ch\u00ednh\u0111\u1ec3 ng\u0103n ng\u1eeba l\u1ed7i x\u1ea3y ra t\u1eeb c\u00f4ng
\u0111o\u1ea1n \u0111\u1ea7u ti\u00ean. N\u00f3 c\u00f3 th\u1ec3 bao g\u1ed3m c\u00e1c th\u1ee7t\u1ee5c c\u00e2n ch\u1ec9nh m\u00e1y m\u00f3c kh\u00f4ng r\u00f5 r\u00e0ng, c\u00e1c h\u01b0\u1edbng
d\u1eabn c\u00f4ng vi\u1ec7c ch\u00e0 nh\u00e1m kh\u00f4ng r\u00f5 r\u00e0ng, c\u00e1c t\u1ed5 tr\u01b0\u1edfng kh\u00f4ng c\u00f3\u0111\u1ea7y\u0111\u1ee7 k\u1ef9 n\u0103ng gi\u00e1m s\u00e1t c\u00f4ng
vi\u1ec7c hi\u1ec7u qu\u1ea3, thi\u1ebfu qui tr\u00ecnh ki\u1ec3m tra ch\u1ea5t l\u01b0\u1ee3ng g\u1ed7 t\u1ea1i ph\u00e2n x\u01b0\u1edfng ra ph\u00f4i g\u1ed7, vv..
Trong m\u1ed9t v\u00ed d\u1ee5 kh\u00e1c, m\u1ed9t c\u00f4ng ty chuy\u00ean s\u1ea3n xu\u1ea5t s\u1ea3n ph\u1ea9m nh\u1ef1a th\u01b0\u1eddng xuy\u00ean g\u1eb7p ph\u1ea3i t\u00ecnh tr\u1ea1ng
s\u1ea3n xu\u1ea5t sai m\u00e0u s\u1eafc s\u1ea3n ph\u1ea9m so v\u1edbi y\u00eau c\u1ea7u c\u1ee7a kh\u00e1ch h\u00e0ng:
\u2022
Gi\u1ea3i ph\u00e1p\u0111i\u1ec3n h\u00ecnh:\u0110i\u1ec1u ch\u1ec9nh c\u00f4ng th\u1ee9c ph\u1ed1i tr\u1ed9n m\u00e0u\u0111ang\u0111\u01b0\u1ee3c s\u1eed d\u1ee5ng b\u1eb1ng n\u1ed7 l\u1ef1c th\u1eed-
sai.
\u2022

Gi\u1ea3i ph\u00e1p Six Sigma: X\u00e1c\u0111\u1ecbnh c\u00e1c t\u00e1c nh\u00e2n\u0111\u1ea7u v\u00e0o ch\u00ednh c\u1ee7a qui tr\u00ecnh ph\u1ed1i m\u00e0u d\u1eabn\u0111\u1ebfn vi\u1ec7c l\u00e0m sai m\u00e0u s\u1eafc c\u1ee7a s\u1ea3n ph\u1ea9m sau\u0111\u00f3 ki\u1ec3m so\u00e1t c\u00e1c t\u00e1c nh\u00e2n n\u00e0y. C\u00e1c t\u00e1c nh\u00e2n n\u00e0y c\u00f3 th\u1ec3 bao g\u1ed3m nh\u00e0 cung\u1ee9ng v\u1eadt t\u01b0, s\u1ef1 r\u00f5 r\u00e0ng c\u1ee7a c\u00e1c h\u01b0\u1edbng d\u1eabn c\u00f4ng th\u1ee9c ph\u1ed1i tr\u1ed9n, h\u1ec7 th\u1ed1ng thu th\u1eadp v\u00e0 ki\u1ec3m tra c\u00e1c c\u00f4ng th\u1ee9c ph\u1ed1i tr\u1ed9n, c\u00e2n ch\u1ec9nh thi\u1ebft b\u1ecb ph\u1ed1i tr\u1ed9n, kh\u1ea3 n\u0103ng th\u1ef1c hi\u1ec7n c\u1ee7a c\u00f4ng nh\u00e2n theo h\u01b0\u1edbng d\u1eabn c\u00f4ng vi\u1ec7c.vv..

Mekong Capital Gi\u1edbi Thi\u1ec7u v\u1ec1 Six Sigma
Trang 3 tr\u00ean 17
1.6 C\u00e1c h\u1ec7 th\u1ed1ng\u0111o l\u01b0\u1eddng v\u00e0 th\u1ed1ng k\u00ea
X\u00e2y d\u1ef1ng c\u00e1c h\u1ec7 th\u1ed1ng\u0111o l\u01b0\u1eddng (metrics) m\u1edbi v\u00e0\u0111\u1eb7t nh\u1eefng c\u00e2u h\u1ecfi m\u1edbi l\u00e0 m\u1ed9t ph\u1ea7n thu\u1ed9c t\u00ednh quan
tr\u1ecdng c\u1ee7a h\u1ec7 ph\u01b0\u01a1ng ph\u00e1p Six Sigma.\u0110\u1ec3 c\u1ea3i thi\u1ec7n k\u1ebft qu\u1ea3, m\u1ed9t c\u00f4ng ty c\u1ea7n x\u00e1c\u0111\u1ecbnh nh\u1eefng c\u00e1ch th\u1ee9c
\u0111\u1ec3 \u0111o l\u01b0\u1eddng c\u00e1c bi\u1ebfn \u0111\u1ed9ng trong c\u00e1c quy tr\u00ecnh kinh doanh, thi\u1ebft l\u1eadp c\u00e1c ch\u1ec9s\u1ed1th\u1ed1ng k\u00ea d\u1ef1a tr\u00ean c\u00e1c h\u1ec7
th\u1ed1ng\u0111o l\u01b0\u1eddng v\u00e0 sau\u0111\u00f3 s\u1eed d\u1ee5ng c\u00e1c ch\u1ec9 s\u1ed1 n\u00e0y \u0111\u1ec3 \u0111\u01b0a ra nh\u1eefng c\u00e2u h\u1ecfi v\u1ec1c\u0103n nguy\u00ean c\u1ee7a nh\u1eefng
v\u1ea5n\u0111\u1ec1 ch\u1ea5t l\u01b0\u1ee3ng li\u00ean quan\u0111\u1ebfn c\u00e1c s\u1ea3n ph\u1ea9m, d\u1ecbch v\u1ee5 v\u00e0 quy tr\u00ecnh.
1.7 Six Sigma kh\u00f4ng ch\u1ec9 d\u00e0nh cho s\u1ea3n xu\u1ea5t
M\u1eb7c d\u00f9 Six Sigma th\u01b0\u1eddng\u0111\u01b0\u1ee3c \u00e1p d\u1ee5ng ch\u1ee7 y\u1ebfu\u0111\u1ec3 gi\u1ea3m thi\u1ec3u khuy\u1ebft t\u1eadt trong quy tr\u00ecnh s\u1ea3n xu\u1ea5t,
ph\u01b0\u01a1ng ph\u00e1p t\u01b0\u01a1ng t\u1ef1 c\u0169ng\u0111\u01b0\u1ee3c s\u1eed d\u1ee5ng\u0111\u1ec3 c\u1ea3i ti\u1ebfn c\u00e1c quy tr\u00ecnh kinh doanh kh\u00e1c. C\u1ee5 th\u1ec3 nh\u01b0:
\u2022
t\u00ecm ra bi\u1ec7n ph\u00e1p\u0111\u1ec3 gia t\u0103ng c\u00f4ng su\u1ea5t c\u1ee7a thi\u1ebft b\u1ecb;
\u2022
c\u1ea3i thi\u1ec7n t\u1ef7 l\u1ec7 giao h\u00e0ng\u0111\u00fang h\u1eb9n;
\u2022
gi\u1ea3m th\u1eddi gian quy tr\u00ecnh tuy\u1ec3n d\u1ee5ng v\u00e0 hu\u1ea5n luy\u1ec7n nh\u00e2n vi\u00ean m\u1edbi;
\u2022
c\u1ea3i thi\u1ec7n kh\u1ea3 n\u0103ng d\u1ef1 b\u00e1o b\u00e1n h\u00e0ng;
\u2022
gi\u1ea3m thi\u1ec3u sai s\u00f3t v\u1ec1 ch\u1ea5t l\u01b0\u1ee3ng v\u00e0 giao nh\u1eadn v\u1edbi c\u00e1c nh\u00e0 cung c\u1ea5p;
\u2022
c\u1ea3i thi\u1ec7n c\u00f4ng t\u00e1c h\u1eadu c\u1ea7n v\u00e0 l\u1eadp k\u1ebf ho\u1ea1ch;
\u2022
c\u1ea3i thi\u1ec7n ch\u1ea5t l\u01b0\u1ee3ng d\u1ecbch v\u1ee5 cho kh\u00e1ch h\u00e0ng.v.v\u2026
1.8 Vi\u1ec7c\u1ee9ng d\u1ee5ng Six Sigma tr\u00ean Th\u1ebf gi\u1edbi

Six Sigma\u0111\u01b0\u1ee3c h\u00ecnh th\u00e0nh\u1edf t\u1eadp\u0111o\u00e0n Motorola v\u00e0o n\u0103m 1986 v\u00e0 sau\u0111\u00f3\u0111\u01b0\u1ee3c ph\u1ed5 bi\u1ebfn r\u1ed9ng r\u00e3i b\u1edfi th\u00e0nh c\u00f4ng c\u1ee7a t\u1eadp\u0111o\u00e0n General Electric (GE) v\u00e0o th\u1eadp ni\u00ean 90. C\u00e1c t\u1ed5 ch\u1ee9c nh\u01b0 Honeywell, Citigroup, Motorola, Starwood Hotels, DuPont, Dow Chemical, American Standard, Kodak, Sony, IBM, Ford\u0111\u00e3 tri\u1ec3n khai c\u00e1c ch\u01b0\u01a1ng tr\u00ecnh Six Sigma xuy\u00ean su\u1ed1t c\u00e1c ho\u1ea1t\u0111\u1ed9ng kinh doanh\u0111a d\u1ea1ng t\u1eeb s\u1ea3n xu\u1ea5t c\u00f4ng ngh\u1ec7 cao cho\u0111\u1ebfn d\u1ecbch v\u1ee5 v\u00e0 c\u00e1c ho\u1ea1t\u0111\u1ed9ng t\u00e0i ch\u00ednh. Tuy ch\u01b0a\u0111\u01b0\u1ee3c ph\u1ed5 bi\u1ebfn r\u1ed9ng\u1edf Vi\u1ec7t Nam nh\u01b0ng m\u1ed9t v\u00e0i c\u00f4ng ty c\u00f3 v\u1ed1n\u0111\u1ea7u t\u01b0 n\u01b0\u1edbc ngo\u00e0i nh\u01b0 American Standard, Ford, LG v\u00e0 Samsung \u0111\u00e3 \u0111\u01b0a ch\u01b0\u01a1ng tr\u00ecnh Six Sigma v\u00e0o tri\u1ec3n khai \u00e1p d\u1ee5ng.

\u2022
Trong m\u1ed9t kh\u1ea3o s\u00e1t g\u1ea7n\u0111\u00e2y do c\u00f4ng ty DynCorp1 th\u1ef1c hi\u1ec7n\u0111\u00e3 cho th\u1ea5y: Kho\u1ea3ng 22% trong
t\u1ed5ng s\u1ed1 c\u00e1c c\u00f4ng ty\u0111\u01b0\u1ee3c kh\u1ea3o s\u00e1t t\u1ea1i M\u1ef9\u0111ang \u00e1p d\u1ee5ng Six Sigma;
\u2022

38,2% trong s\u1ed1 c\u00e1c c\u00f4ng ty\u0111ang \u00e1p d\u1ee5ng Six Sigma n\u00e0y l\u00e0 c\u00e1c c\u00f4ng ty chuy\u00ean v\u1ec1 c\u00e1c ng\u00e0nh d\u1ecbch v\u1ee5, 49.3% l\u00e0 c\u00e1c c\u00f4ng ty chuy\u00ean v\u1ec1 s\u1ea3n xu\u1ea5t v\u00e0 12.5% l\u00e0 c\u00e1c c\u00f4ng ty thu\u1ed9c c\u00e1c l\u0129nh v\u1ef1c kh\u00e1c;

\u2022

So s\u00e1nh tr\u00ean ph\u01b0\u01a1ng di\u1ec7n hi\u1ec7u qu\u1ea3, Six Sigma\u0111\u01b0\u1ee3c\u0111\u00e1nh gi\u00e1 l\u00e0 cao h\u01a1n\u0111\u00e1ng k\u1ec3 so v\u1edbi c\u00e1c h\u1ec7 th\u1ed1ng qu\u1ea3n tr\u1ecb ch\u1ea5t l\u01b0\u1ee3ng v\u00e0 c\u00f4ng c\u1ee5 c\u1ea3i ti\u1ebfn qui tr\u00ecnh kh\u00e1c (tuy nhi\u00ean, Six Sigma\u1edf\u0111\u00e2y c\u00f2n bao g\u1ed3m nhi\u1ec1u c\u00f4ng c\u1ee5 ch\u01b0a\u0111\u01b0\u1ee3c li\u1ec7t k\u00ea trong kh\u1ea3o s\u00e1t n\u00e0y)

H\u1ec7 th\u1ed1ng qu\u1ea3n tr\u1ecb ch\u1ea5t l\u01b0\u1ee3ng, c\u00f4ng c\u1ee5 c\u1ea3i ti\u1ebfn qui tr\u00ecnh n\u00e0o\u0111\u00e3 cho c\u00e1c hi\u1ec7u qu\u1ea3 to
l\u1edbn nh\u1ea5t?
Six Sigma
53.6%
S\u01a1 \u0111\u1ed3 qui tr\u00ecnh (process mapping)
35.3%
Ph\u00e2n t\u00edch nguy\u00ean nh\u00e2n g\u1ed1c (Root cause analysis)
33.5%
Ph\u00e2n t\u00edch nguy\u00ean nh\u00e2n v\u00e0 k\u1ebft qu\u1ea3 (Cause-and-effect analysis)
31.3%
T\u01b0 duy/S\u1ea3n xu\u1ea5t theo Lean (Lean thinking/manufacturing)
26.3%
So s\u00e1nh l\u1ea5y chu\u1ea9n (Benchmarking)
25.0%
Gi\u1ea3i quy\u1ebft v\u1ea5n\u0111\u1ec1 (Problem solving)
23.2%
ISO 9001
21.0%
N\u0103ng l\u1ef1c qui tr\u00ecnh (Process capability)
20.1%
Ki\u1ec3m so\u00e1t qui tr\u00ecnh b\u1eb1ng th\u1ed1ng k\u00ea (Statistical process control)
20.1%
C\u00e1c ch\u1ec9 s\u1ed1\u0111\u00e1nh gi\u00e1 hi\u1ec7u qu\u1ea3 (Performance metrics)
19.2%
Bi\u1ec3u\u0111\u1ed3 ki\u1ec3m so\u00e1t (Control charts)
19.2%
Qu\u1ea3n l\u00fd qui tr\u00ecnh (Process management )
18.8%
Qu\u1ea3n l\u00fd d\u1ef1 \u00e1n (Project management)
17.9%
C\u00e1c qui tr\u00ecnh\u0111\u1ecbnh h\u01b0\u1edbng kh\u00e1ch h\u00e0ng (Customer-driven processes)
17.9%
Thi\u1ebft k\u1ebf th\u1eed nghi\u1ec7m (Design of experiments)
17.4%
Ph\u00e2n t\u00edch sai s\u00f3t v\u00e0 t\u00e1c\u0111\u1ed9ng (Failure mode and effects analysis)
17.4%
Ng\u0103n ng\u1eeba sai s\u00f3t (Mistake-proofing/Poka yoke)
16.5%
T\u00e1i thi\u1ebft qui tr\u00ecnh (Process reengineering)
16.1%
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