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Chapter 2 Cell Structure & Organization - Lecture Notes

Chapter 2 Cell Structure & Organization - Lecture Notes

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Jurongville Secondary SchoolSecondary 3 Express Biology NotesSyllabus 5093
Name: _________________________ ()Class: Sec 3___Date: ___________
Chapter 1:Characteristics of Living OrganismsChapter 2:Cell Structure & Organization1.1Characteristics of living organisms
Most living organisms show the following characteristics
Characteristics of LifeDescription
NutritionRespirationExcretionGrowthMovementSensitivityReproductionAdaptability
2.1Cell Structure & Organization
Cells are the basic unit of life
Cells can exist
o
Singly as independent organisms showing all the characteristics of life (eg.Amoeba) (called UNICELLULAR ORGANISMS) (Uni: one)
o
As part of a MULTICELLULAR organism (Multi: many)
These cells are modified for specific functions (eg. Root hair cell, redblood cell, muscle cells, etc)
The living matter in cells consists of 
ComponentsFunctions
Nucleus
Contains hereditary material (Chromosomes) made of DNA
Acts as a control center for cell activities
Controls cell divisionCytoplasm
Many chemical reactions of life in the cell occur here, especiallyspecial structures (organelles) within it.Cell SurfaceMembrane
Is a partially-permeable (or selectively-permeable) membrane
Prevents cell contents from flowing out
Controls substances entering or leaving the cell
1
 
Cells organelles found in the cytoplasm includes
Cell OrganellesFunctions
Cellulose cell wall(Plant Cell Only!)
Rigid fully-permeable membrane
Provides mechanical support and protection to plant cellsVacuole (Sapvacuole in plants)
Membrane-bound spaces containing chemicals that are either secreted, excreted or stored by cellsChloroplast(Plant Cell Only!)
An organelle which contains a pigment (chlorophyll) and enzymesneeded for photosynthesisMitochondria
Releases energy during cell respiration
Differences between a typical animal cell & a typical plant cell
Animal cellPlant cellSimilarities
Cell membrane
Cytoplasm
Nucleus
Differences
Vacuoles are small and many,contain no cell sapLarge single, central vacuole,contain cell sap (made up of sugars mostly)No cell wallContain cellulose cell wallNo chloroplastsMay have chloroplastsAround 10-20 microns acrossAround 40-100 microns across
A step-by-step organization from simple atoms to a complex organism is shown
2
 
2.2Organization of Living Organisms (Cells combining to improve their efficiency)
o
Cell
Tissues
Organs
Organ systems
Organism
o
Tissue: A group of similar and specialized cells working together to carry out aparticular function. E.g. muscular tissue and xylem tissue
o
Organ: Body part composed of several types of tissues working together to carryout a particular function e.g. heart
o
Organ system: A system composed of several functionally related organs workingtogether for a special function. E.g. Circulatory system, Digestive system.
2.3Some specialized cell structures & their related functions
o
In unicellular organisms, one cell must be able to carry out all the functions of aliving organism
o
In multicellular organisms, one type of cells is usually modified to carry out onemain function. The appearance of the cell (called adaptation) will vary dependingon what the main function is.
o
The following specialized cells are examples of how cells are adapted (or modified) in order to serve their functions
TypeStructureFunction
Root hair cellThe outer part of the cell wall is in the form olong, tubular extension (the root hair), which
Is able to form very close contact withthe soil water film surrounding manysoil particles
Greatly increase the surface area of the cell available for uptake of water and ionsAbsorption of water andmineral salts from the soilXylem vessel
Xylem vessels are long and narrowtubes, stretching from roots, throughthe stem, to the leaves. They arestacked end to end like drain pipes
Xylem vessels are strengthened bythe chemical lignin. As lignin buildsup, it eventually kills the xylemvessels. There is thus no cytoplasm toblock the flow of water and mineralsalts.
Conduct water andmineral salts fromthe roots to thestem, leaves,flowers and fruits
To providemechanical supportfor the plant abovethe ground
3
Multicellular organism

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