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The Forgotten Freedom of Assembly

The Forgotten Freedom of Assembly

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Published by Occupy Cleveland
By: John D. Inazu - A thesis submitted to the faculty of the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Arts in the Department of Political Science.
Chapel Hill 2007
By: John D. Inazu - A thesis submitted to the faculty of the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Arts in the Department of Political Science.
Chapel Hill 2007

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Published by: Occupy Cleveland on Nov 12, 2011
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THE FORGOTTEN FREEDOM OF ASSEMBLYJohn D. InazuA thesis submitted to the faculty of the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill inpartial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Artsin the Department of Political Science.Chapel Hill2007Approved by:Jeff Spinner-HalevMichael LieneschSusan Bickford
 
iiABSTRACTJOHN INAZU: The Forgotten Freedom of Assembly(Under the direction of Jeff Spinner-Halev)This thesis examines “the right of the people peaceably to assembleand itsgradual disappearance from American constitutional jurisprudence. I begin by exploringthe English and colonial roots of the freedom of assembly and its adoption in the Bill of Rights. In doing so, I highlight the significance of political and religious assembly to theFramers and in the early Republic. I then examine the development of assembly inAmerican constitutional law and the later emergence of the right of association in thecontext of mid-twentieth century liberalism. I argue throughout the thesis that assembly,unlike association, reminds us of the importance of protecting the physical act of peoplecoming together, the value of allowing dissent, and the fundamental differences betweenstate and non-state social practices. I conclude by positing how a recovery of thefreedom of assembly might be employed within a contemporary legal framework tostrengthen the constitutional protections for groups.
 
iiiTABLE OF CONTENTSINTRODUCTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1I. THE RIGHT PEACEABLY TO ASSEMBLE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6English Roots . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6Assembly in Colonial America . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8Assembly in the Bill of Rights . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .11Early American Assemblies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .17II. ASSEMBLY IN AMERICAN CONSTITUTIONAL LAW . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22The Early Cases:
Cruikshank 
and
Presser 
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22Incorporation: Assembly Made Applicable to the States . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25A Right Without a Doctrine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28The Adventitious Roots of Association . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31The End of Assembly? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36III. ASSOCIATION AFTER
ALABAMA
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39The Influence of Liberalism . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40William Douglas and the Freedom of Association . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52IV. THE MODERN RIGHT OF ASSOCIATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62A Shifting Justification for Association . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .63
 Roberts v. Jaycees
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66After
Roberts
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71

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