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5590Power Supply

5590Power Supply

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Published by ah chong

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Published by: ah chong on Nov 12, 2011
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11/12/2011

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Computer Components and InterfacingThe Power Supply – Lecture 9
 
The internal power supply is responsible for
converting your standard householdpower (AC) into a form that your computer can use (DC).
The power supply is responsible for powering
every device
in your computer.The power supply plays an important role in the following areas of your system:
 
Stability:
 
A high quality power
supply with sufficient capacity to meet thedemands of your computer will
provide years of stable power for yourPC.
For example, power supplies can cause system crashes.
 
Cooling:
The power supply contains the main
fan
that controls the flow of air through the PC case.
 
Expandability:
The
capacity of your power
supply is one factor that willdetermine your
ability to add new drives to your system
, or upgrade to amore powerful motherboard or processor. Many people don't realize, forexample, that a high-speed Athlon CPU and motherboard consume
 far 
morepower than a similar Pentium-based system, and the power supply needs tobe able to provide this power.These pie charts show why you should pay attention to your power. Despite theirlow cost compared to other PC components, power and cooling are responsiblefor a large percentage of overall system problems.
 AC-DC Voltage Conversion
 The electricity you get from your utility company is in the form of alternatingcurrent
(AC),
while the
electricity your PC requires is direct current (DC).
 
 
In fact, the supply normal
demands of different co
The
indicator
that a
devi
run on
batteries.
 PCs use
switching powe
switch and a closed feedbSimplified block dThe
main advantage
of 
than a linear design
(AThe
second advantage
ishas to be
removed by th
supplies produce less heaThe
main disadvantage
 
signals
within it as part oand
cause interference t
this reason, you will alwa
shielding.
The
power factor
of a dedevice to the product of tsupplies have a
power faStandard Output Volta
PCs use
several differen
Most of the power provid
voltages
, but some is in tNegative voltage is a
slig
current. It just means thatsignal, instead of the signly provides several different voltage le
ponents in the machine
.
e actually uses DC inside is:
the abil
supplies
. The
switching power supp
a
 
ck loop to produce DC output.iagram of one design for a switching pswitching power supply is that it is faAdapter: change AC
DC).that all the
energy wasted in the poPC's cooling system
. Therefore, mor.f a switching supply is that it
generat
its conversion process, which can rad
other electronic devices
(inside or oys see PC power supplies
encased in
vice refers to the ratio of the actual poe current and voltage supplied to it. T
tor of about 0.6 to 0.7
.
es:
 
voltages
to power their various comped by the power supply is in the forme form of 
 negative voltages
.tly strange concept
when used in ref the
voltage potential
is measured froal to ground.vels,
to meet the
ity of the device to
ly
uses a transistorower supply.r
more efficienter supply as heat
 e efficient power
es high-frequency
iate out of the unitutside the PC). For
etal boxes for
er used by theaditional poweronents.
 positive
e
 
rence to a DCground to the
 
 Scale illustration of the various voltages provided by a typical, modern powersupply. The
color
of each line corresponds to the color normally given wirescarrying that voltage in the supply's motherboard connectors. The
black zerovoltage
line represents the system's ground, which is the reference point.Here are the details on the various voltages provided by today's power supplies:
 
-12 V:
This voltage is used on some types of 
serial port circuits
, whose
amplifier circuits require both -12V and +12V
.
 
-5 V:
-5 V was used on some of the earliest PCs for
floppy controllers
andother
circuits used by ISA bus cards
 
0 V:
Zero volts i
s th
e ground 
of the PC's electrical system, also sometimescalle
 d common
 
 or earth
.
The ground signals provided by the power supplyar
e used to complete circuits with the other voltages.
 
 
+3.3 V:
The
newest voltage level
provided by modern power supplies, itwas introduced with the
ATX
form factor and is now found on theATX/NLX and SFX form factors. It is
not found in Baby AT
or
olderform
factors.
 
+5 V:
Used on older form factor systems (Baby AT and earlier) , this is thevoltage used to run the motherboard, the CPU and the vast majority of othercomponents in the system.
 
+12 V:
This voltage is used primarily to power
disk drive motors
. It is alsoused by
fans
and other types of 
cooling devices
.
Originally
, the
lowest regular voltage
provided by the power supply was
+5 V,
 which was used to provide power to the
CPU, memory,
and everything else on the
motherboard
.
Starting with the second generation Pentium
chips, Intel went to a reduced 3.3V voltage, in order to reduce power consumption as the chips got faster. This
required motherboard manufacturers to put voltage regulators
on their boards

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