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Library instruction and
information literacy
Anna Marie Johnson

If anyone had doubts, it is apparent that the
field of library instruction and information
literacy (IL) is, indeed, an established field of
research. In fact, one of this year's articles

makes a strong case for that very point (Arp and Woodard, 2002). Since the number of articles published this year is similar to last year, it does not seem like interest in the field is waning,

simply maturing (Table I). This reviewer found

fewer articles explaining what information literacy is, and many more articles asking questions such as ``how can we create

meaningful assessment of students' information

literacy levels?'' In fact, approximately
10 percent of the articles in this year's
bibliography dealt directly with assessment,

while many more made mention of the need for
it. There are several national IL assessment

efforts under way which should come to fruition in the next few years. It will be interesting to see the research that comes from them.

In the school library/media center literature, research models dominated the discussion, but collaboration was also the subject much on

practitioners' minds. Several interesting articles
on inquiry and involving students in asking and

researching meaningful questions were
published. These could be useful for school
media specialists who are looking for
collaborative ideas to suggest to their teacher
colleagues (Broaddus and Ivey, 2002;
Griersonet al., 2002; Harvey, 2002;
Mansukhani, 2002).

In the public library realm, articles about
information literacy remain sparse;
however, a research guide for public library
users was published this year by the
Ontario Public Library Association which
could serve as a helpful resource for public
librarians in both the USA and Canada
(Donlan, 2002). This is an encouraging sign

that there is a growing awareness among public
librarians of the need for information literate

In the academic library literature, some
themes remain constant. Tutorials, tours, and
distance learning issues were all represented in
the practical literature. Many articles mention
the ACRL Information Literacy Competency
Standards For Higher Education, and there

The author
Anna Marie Johnsonis Team Leader, Information Literacy
University of Louisville Libraries, University of Louisville,
Louisville, Kentucky, USA.
Bibliographies, Libraries, Library facilities,
Curriculum development
This article presents an annotated bibliography of literature
recently on library instruction and information literacy in

academic, school, public, special, and all types of libraries. Interest in the topic remains strong, with a growing number of pieces also including the importance of assessment. Other themes discussed in the articles include research, colla-

boration, the use of tutorials, tours, distance learning, active
learning, problem-based learning, and the role of accred-
itation bodies.
Electronic access
The Emerald Research Register for this journal is available at
The current issue and full text archive of this journal is
available at
Reference Services Review
Volume 31. Number 4. 2003. pp. 385-418
#MCB UP Limited. ISSN 0090-7324
DOI 10.1108/00907320310505672
were several articles this year that began to look

critically at the standards. This would suggest
that they are being widely adapted and
insightfully used (Cain, 2002). Both
problem-based learning and case-based
learning appear in the literature this year as

well, and this seems to reflect a shift in teaching
from lecturing to more active learning across
many disciplines (Carderet al., 2001; Engeret
al., 2002).

Accreditation standards and the inclusion of
information literacy into those standards was
the subject of several articles in the higher
education literature. With many accrediting
bodies revising their standards, it is important
that IL practitioners are aware of the changes

and can advocate on their campuses for ways to

translate the accreditation standards into
practice (Gratch-Lindauer, 2002; Ratteray,
2002; Thompson, 2002). Collaboration
continued to be a theme in the academic
literature as well though not as
prominently this year. There were several
articles which gave practical suggestions for
collaborative possibilities in integrating
information literacy instruction into the

Academic libraries

Abidi, S.A.H. (2002), ``Uganda: toward
information literacy and an information and
communication technologies environment'',

The Library Quarterly, Vol. 72 No. 4,
pp. xiii-xvi.
Short opinion piece arguing for information
professionals to use their skills and training to
educate the citizens of their country as a means
of countering terrorism. Includes goals for
information literacy in Uganda.
Atkins, P. and Frerichs, C.E. (2002), ``Planning
and implementing a teaching workshop for
librarians'',College & Undergraduate Libraries,
Vol. 9 No. 2, pp. 5-20.

A librarian at Hope College and a faculty
development specialist created a workshop for
teaching librarians which included three
half-day sessions: pedagogy, microteaching

(where librarians actually taught to their peers), and an open-ended discussion of IL. Workshop materials are included.

Austen, G.et al. (2002), ``Australian university
libraries and the new educational
environment'',Journal of Academic
Librarianship, Vol. 28 No. 1/2, pp. 63-7.

Reports on trends in Australian university
libraries including an emphasis on remote
services, online instruction and information

literacy. Uses the University of Queensland as a
case study.

Bao, X.-M. (2002), ``A comparative study
of library surveys of Internet users at Seton
Hall University in 1998 and 2001'',

College & Research Libraries, Vol. 63 No. 3,
pp. 251-9.

Comparison of surveys of users' Internet
use in 1998 and 2001 showed a dramatic
increase in the use of the Internet as well as
increased satisfaction on the part of the users.
What remains problematic is the ability to
find useful information and the lack of
awareness of alternate sources of
information such as subscription-based

Beagle, D. (2002), ``Extending the information
commons: from instructional testbed to
Internet2'',The Journal of Academic
Librarianship, Vol. 28 No. 5, pp. 287-96.

Author uses the term ``information commons''
to describe the way libraries must reorganize
their thinking for the twenty-first century in
both physical and digital space. Addresses
instruction implications including the need for
integration into course management software
and online tutorials to meet students at their
point of need.

Table I
Type of library
Number of 2001
Number of 2002
All types
Library instruction and information literacy
Anna Marie Johnson
Reference Services Review
Volume 31. Number 4. 2003. 385-418
Beile, P. (2002),The Effect of Library Instruction
Learning Environments on Self-efficacy Levels and
Learning Outcomes of Graduate Students in
Education, ERIC Publication, ED465331.
Study of 49 graduate students in education who

were exposed to instruction in one of three
formats (face-to-face, online, or tutorial on
campus) found that regardless of learning
environment, students improved their library
self-efficacy with instruction. Those with
previous instruction showed significant effect
on self-efficacy scores possibly demonstrating
the cumulative effects of instruction.

Ben Omran, A.I. (2001),Library Anxiety and
Internet Anxiety among Graduate Students of a
Major Research University, University of
Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA.
Study attempts to find a relationship between a

number of variables and library and Internet
anxiety. Only variable with a positive
correlation was age although frequency of
Internet use was also predictive of Internet

anxiety. Also found differences in anxiety levels
between American and international students.

Bergart, R. (2002), ``An exploration of the
impact of electronic resources on
undergraduate research'',Feliciter, Vol. 48
No. 4, pp. 181-4.

Discusses the problems and issues faced by
students when using electronic databases such
as ``false focus'' (using the first citations they
find or prematurely narrowing their topic
because of pressure from a librarian), ``limiting
to full-text'', and inability to browse. Urges
professors and librarians ``to teach that the
research process demands time, creativity, and
critical thinking.''

Bernnard, D.F.J. and Trudi, E. (2001), ``The

committee that worked: developing an
information literacy course by group
process'',Research Strategies, Vol. 18 No. 2,
pp. 133-42.

Incorporation of IL into general education
requirements at the University of Albany
(SUNY) necessitated a timely response in the
form of a for-credit course. The composition
and work of the committee, the technology

used, the professional development of the
instructors, and the experience of teaching are
all discussed.

Black, C.et al. (2001), ``Building a successful
information literacy infrastructure on the
foundation of librarian-faculty collaboration'',

Research Strategies, Vol. 18 No. 3, pp. 215-25.

Asserts that personal relationships between
faculty and librarians are key to collaboration
on IL instructional development. Uses

examples of this concept in practice at Towson
Blakeslee, S. and Johnson, K. (2002), ``Using
HorizonLive to deliver library instruction to
distance and online students'',Reference Services
Review, Vol. 30 No. 4, pp. 324-9.

HorizonLive is a software product that enables instructors to use streaming media, chat, shared applications, and pushed content to create a

collaborative feel to online classes. Librarians at

Cal State, Chico used it to create a library
instruction presentation and quiz that
instructors could link to from their online
classes since the software was already in use in
these classes.

Bodi, S. (2002), ``How do we bridge the gap
between what we teach and what they do? Some
thoughts on the place of questions in the
process of research'',The Journal of Academic
Librarianship, Vol. 28 No. 3, pp. 109-14.

Research shows that the undergraduate
research process is significantly different from
that of faculty and librarians; thus it is

important to provide more guidance in the form
of questions (modeled in this article) to help
students focus their research topics.

Boff, C. and Johnson, K. (2002), ``The library and first-year experience courses: a nation-wide study'',Reference Services Review, Vol. 30 No. 4, pp. 277-87.

Survey of 749 institutions offering first-year
experience courses found that 86 per cent have
a library component of some kind and 67 per
cent have a required component. At 73 per cent
of the schools, the library component is two
hours or less and comprises a small portion of
the course curriculum, and schools with low or
Library instruction and information literacy
Anna Marie Johnson
Reference Services Review
Volume 31. Number 4. 2003. 385-418

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