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Introduction to Complex Analysis (Lecture Notes, 2003)Chen

Introduction to Complex Analysis (Lecture Notes, 2003)Chen

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\ue000W W L Chen, 1996, 2003.

This chapter originates from material used by the author at Imperial College, University of London, between 1981 and 1990.
It is available free to all individuals, on the understanding that it is not to be used for \ufb01nancial gains,
and may be downloaded and/or photocopied, with or without permission from the author.
However, this document may not be kept on any information storage and retrieval system without permission
from the author, unless such system is not accessible to any individuals other than its owners.

Chapter 1
1.1. Arithmetic and Conjugates

The purpose of this chapter is to give a review of various properties of the complex numbers that we shall need in the discussion of complex analysis. As the reader is expected to be familiar with the material, all proofs have been omitted.

The equationx2+ 1 = 0 has no solutionx\u2208R. To \u201csolve\u201d this equation, we have to introduce extra numbers into our number system. To do this, we de\ufb01ne the number i by i2+ 1 = 0, and then extend the \ufb01eld of all real numbers by adjoining the number i, which is then combined with the real numbers by the operations addition and multiplication in accordance with the Field axioms of the real number system. The numbersa + ib, wherea, b\u2208R, of the extended \ufb01eld are then added and multiplied in accordance with the Field axioms, suitably extended, and the restriction i2+ 1 = 0. Note that the numbera + 0i, wherea\u2208R, behaves like the real numbera.

What we have said in the last paragraph basically amounts to the following. Consider two complex
numbersa + ib andc + id, wherea, b, c, d\u2208R. We have the addition and multiplication rules
(a + ib) + (c + id) = (a +c) + i(b +d)
(a + ib)(c + id) = (ac\u2212 bd) + i(ad +bc).
These lead to the subtraction rule
(a + ib)\u2212 (c + id) = (a\u2212 c) + i(b\u2212 d),
and the division rule, that ifc + id\ue001= 0, then
c+id=ac+ bd
c2+ d2+ibc\u2212 ad
c2+ d2.
W W L Chen : Introduction to Complex Analysis
Note the special casea = 1 andb = 0.
Suppose thatz =x + iy, wherex, y\u2208R. The real numberx is called the real part ofz, and denoted
byx =Rez. The real numbery is called the imaginary part ofz, and denoted byy =Imz. The set
C={z =x + iy :x, y\u2208 R}is called the set of all complex numbers. The complex numberz= x\u2212iyis
called the conjugate ofz.
It is easy to see that for everyz\u2208C, we have
Imz=z\u2212 z
Furthermore, ifw\u2208C, then
z+ w= z+ w
zw= z w.
1.2. Polar Coordinates
Suppose thatz =x + iy, wherex, y\u2208R. The real number
x2+ y2
is called the modulus ofz, and denoted by|z|. On the other hand, ifz\ue001= 0, then any number\u03b8\u2208R
satisfying the equations
x= rcos \u03b8
y= rsin \u03b8
is called an argument ofz, and denoted by argz. Hence we can writez in polar form
z= r(cos \u03b8+ i sin \u03b8).

Note, however, that for a givenz\u2208C, argz is not unique. Clearly we can add any integer multiple of 2\u03c0 to\u03b8 without a\ufb00ecting (1). We sometimes call a real number\u03b8\u2208R the principal argument ofz if\u03b8 satis\ufb01es the equations (1) and\u2212\u03c0 < \u03b8 \u2264\u03c0. The principal argument ofz is usually denoted by Argz.

It is easy to see that for everyz\u2208C, we have|z|2=zz. Also, ifw\u2208C, then
|zw|= |z||w|
|z+ w| \u2264|z|+ |w|.
Furthermore, if
z= r(cos \u03b8+ i sin \u03b8)
w= s(cos \u03c6+ i sin \u03c6),
wherer, s, \u03b8, \u03c6\u2208R andr, s > 0, then
zw= rs(cos(\u03b8+ \u03c6) + i sin(\u03b8+ \u03c6))
w=rs(cos(\u03b8\u2212 \u03c6) + i sin(\u03b8\u2212 \u03c6)).
1.3. Rational Powers
De Moivre\u2019s theorem, that
cosn\u03b8 + i sinn\u03b8 = (cos\u03b8 + i sin\u03b8)n
for everyn\u2208N and\u03b8\u2208R,
Chapter 1 : Complex Numbers
is useful in \ufb01ndingn-th roots of complex numbers.
Suppose thatc =R(cos\u03b1 + i sin\u03b1), whereR, \u03b1\u2208R andR > 0. Then the solutions of the equation
zn=c are given by
+ i sin\u03b1+2k\u03c0
wherek = 0, 1,...,n\u2212 1.

Finally, we can de\ufb01necbfor anyb\u2208Q and non-zeroc\u2208C as follows. The rational numberb can be written uniquely in the formb =p/q, wherep\u2208Z andq\u2208N have no prime factors in common. Then there are exactlyq distinct numbersz satisfyingzq =c. We now de\ufb01necb =zp, noting that the expression (2) can easily be extended to alln\u2208Z. It is not too di\ufb03cult to show that there areq distinct values for the rational powercb.

Problems for Chapter 1
1. Suppose thatz0\u2208Cis \ufb01xed. A polynomialP (z) is said to be divisible byz \u2212z0if there is another
polynomialQ(z) such thatP (z) = (z\u2212 z0)Q(z).
a) Show that for everyc\u2208C andk\u2208N, the polynomialc(zk\u2212z k
0) is divisible byz\u2212 z0.
b) Consider the polynomialP (z) =a0 +a1z +a2z2 +... +anzn, wherea0 ,a1 ,a2 ,...,an\u2208C are

arbitrary. Show that the polynomialP (z)\u2212P (z0) is divisible byz\u2212 z0.
c) Deduce thatP (z) is divisible byz\u2212 z0ifP (z0) = 0.
d) Suppose that a polynomialP (z) of degreen vanishes atn distinct valuesz1,z2,...,zn\u2208C, so

thatP (z1) =P (z2) =... =P (zn) = 0. Show thatP (z) =c(z\u2212 z1)(z\u2212 z2)... (z\u2212 zn), where
c\u2208Cis a constant.
e) Suppose that a polynomialP (z) of degreen vanishes at more thann distinct values. Show
thatP (z) = 0 identically.
2. Suppose that\u03b1\u2208C is \ufb01xed and|\u03b1|< 1. Show that|z |\u2264 1 if and only if
z\u2212 \u03b1
3. Suppose thatz =x + iy, wherex, y\u2208R. Express each of the following in terms ofx andy:
a)|z \u2212 1|3
1\u2212 iz
4. Suppose thatc\u2208R and\u03b1\u2208C with\u03b1\ue001= 0.
a) Show that\u03b1z +\u03b1z+ c= 0 is the equation of a straight line on the plane.
b) What does the equationzz +\u03b1z +\u03b1z +c = 0 represent if|\u03b1|2 \u2265c?
5. Suppose thatz, w\u2208C. Show that|z +w|2+|z \u2212w|2= 2(|z|2+|w|2).
6. Find all the roots of the equation (z8\u2212 1)(z3 + 8) = 0.
7. For each of the following, compute all the values and plot them on the plane:
a) (1 + i)\u22121/2
b) (\u22124)3/4
c) (1\u2212 i)3/8

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