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\u00a9Silberschatz, Korth and Sudarshan
Database System Concepts
Chapter 1: Introduction
Chapter 1: Introduction

sPurpose of Database Systems
sView of Data
sData Models

sData Definition Language
sData Manipulation Language

sTrans action Management
sStorage Management
sDatabase Administrator

sDatabase Us ers
sOverall System Structure
\u00a9Silberschatz, Korth and Sudarshan
Database System Concepts
Database Management System (DBMS)
Database Management System (DBMS)

sCollection of interrelated data
sSet of programs to access the data
sDBMS contains information about a particular enterprise
sDBMS provides an environment that is bothc onve ni e nt and

efficientto use.
sDatabase Applications:

5Banking: all transactions
5Airlines: reservations , schedules
5Universities: registration, grades
5Sales: customers, products, purchases
5Manufacturing: production, inventory, orders, supply chain
5Human resources: employee records, salaries, tax deductions

sDatabases touch all aspects of our lives
\u00a9Silberschatz, Korth and Sudarshan
Database System Concepts
Purpose of Database System
Purpose of Database System
sIn the early days, database applications were built on top of
file systems
sDrawbacks of using file systems to store data:
5Data redundancy and inconsistency
\ue000Multiple file formats, duplication of information in different files
5Difficulty in accessing data
\ue000Need to write a new program to carry out each new task
5Data isolation \u2014 multiple files and formats
5Integrity problems
\ue000Integrity constraints (e.g. account balance > 0) become part
of program code
\ue000Hard to add new constraints or change existing ones
\u00a9Silberschatz, Korth and Sudarshan
Database System Concepts
Purpose of Database Systems (Cont.)
Purpose of Database Systems (Cont.)
sDrawbacks of using file systems (cont.)
5Atomicity of updates
\ue000Failures may leave database in an inconsistent state with partial
updates carried out
\ue000E.g. transfer of funds from one account to another should either
complete or not happen at all
5Concurrent access by multiple us ers
\ue000Concurrent access ed needed for performance
\ue000Uncontrolled concurrent accesses can lead to inconsistencies
\u2013E.g. two people reading a balance and updating it at the s ame
5Security problems
sDatabase systems offer solutions to all the above problems
\u00a9Silberschatz, Korth and Sudarshan
Database System Concepts
Levels of Abstraction
Levels of Abstraction
sPhysical level describes how a record (e.g., customer) is stored.
sLogical level: describes data stored in database, and the
relationships among the data.
typecustomer = record

name: string; street: string; city: integer;

sView level: application programs hide details of data types.
Views can also hide information (e.g., salary) for security
\u00a9Silberschatz, Korth and Sudarshan
Database System Concepts
View of Data
View of Data
An architecture for a database system
\u00a9Silberschatz, Korth and Sudarshan
Database System Concepts
Instances and Schemas
Instances and Schemas
sSimilar to types and variables in programm ing languages
sSchema\u2013 the logical structure of the database
5e.g., the database consists of information about a set of customers and
accounts and the relationship betw een them)

5Analogous to type information of a variable in a program 5Physical schem a: database design at the physical level 5Logical s chema: database design at the logical level

sInstance\u2013 the actual content of the database at a particular point in time
5Analogous to the value of a variable
sPhysical Data Independence\u2013 the ability to modify the physical schema
without changing the logical s chema
5Applications depend on the logical schema
5In general, the interfaces between the various levels and components should
be well defined so that changes in some parts do not seriously influence others.
\u00a9Silberschatz, Korth and Sudarshan
Database System Concepts
Data Models
Data Models
sA collection of tools for describing
5data relationships
5data semantics
5data constraints

sEntity\u00adRelationship model
sRelational model
sOther models:

5object\u00adoriented model
5semi\u00ads tructured data models
5Older models: network m odel and hierarchical m odel
\u00a9Silberschatz, Korth and Sudarshan
Database System Concepts
\u00adRelationship Model
Relationship Model
Example of schema in the entity\u00adrelationship model

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