Welcome to Scribd. Sign in or start your free trial to enjoy unlimited e-books, audiobooks & documents.Find out more
Standard view
Full view
of .
Look up keyword
Like this
0 of .
Results for:
No results containing your search query
P. 1
CH 15 the Chromosomal Basis of Inheritance

CH 15 the Chromosomal Basis of Inheritance

|Views: 150|Likes:
Published by wil7ver

More info:

Published by: wil7ver on Nov 13, 2011
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial


Read on Scribd mobile: iPhone, iPad and Android.
download as PDF, TXT or read online from Scribd
See more
See less





Ch 15: The Chromosomal Basis of InheritanceOverview :Location genesalong chromosomesKey conceptsC 15.1: Mendelianinheritance has its physicalbasis in the behavior of chromosomesMorgan’s experimemntalevidence: scientific inquiryC15.2: Sex-linked genesexhibit unique patterns of inheritanceInheritance of Sex-linkedgenes
Mendel’s “hereditary factors” were genes that we know are located on chromosomes
Location of a particular gene can be seen by tagging isolated chromosomes with afluorescent dye that highlights the gene
Concept 15.1: mendelian inheritance has its physical basis in the behavior of chromosomes
15.2: sex-linked genes exhibit unique patterns of inheritance
15.3: linked genes tend to be inherited together because they are located near each otheron the same chromosome
15.4: alterations of chromosome number or structure cause some genetic disorders
15.5: some inherited patterns are exceptions to standard mendelian inheritance
Mitosis and meiosis were first described in the late 1800s
The chromosome theory of inheritance states:-mendelian genes have specific loci (positions) on chromosome-chromosome undergo segregation and independent assortment
Behavior of chromosomes during meiosis can account for Mendel’s laws of segregationand independent assortment
First solid evidence associating a specific gene with a specific chromosome originatewith Thomas Hunt Morgan with fruit flies that provided convincing evidence thatchromosome are the location of Mendel’s heritable factors
Several characteristics make fruit flies a convenient organism for genetic studies-they produce many offspring-generation can be bred every two weeks- they have only four pairs of chromosomes
Morgan noted wild type, or normal, phenotypes that were common in the fly populations
Traits altenative to the wild type are called mutant phenotypes
In an experiment, morgan mated male flies with white eyes (mutant) with female flieswith red eyes (wild type)- F
generations all had red eyes- F
generation showed the 3:1 red white eyes ration, but only males had white eyes
Morgan concluded that white-eyed mutant allele must be located on X chromosome
Morgan’s finding supported the chromosome theory of inheritance
In humans (&some other animals), chromosomes determine sex-human and other mammals, there are 2 varieties of sex chromosomes: a large Xchromosome and a smaller Y chromosome-only ends of Y chromosomes have regions that are homologous with thecorresponding region of X chromosome (SRY gene on Y codes for a protein thatdirects male development
Female = XX (each gamete contains an X)
Males = XY (each gamete contains an X OR a Y)
Other animals have different methods of sex determination
Sex chromosome also have genes unrelated to sex that are called sex-linked gene
In humans, sex-linked usually refers to a gene on the larger X chromosome and follwspecific patterns of inheritance
 X inactivation in femalemammalsC15.3: Linked genes tendto be inherited together bccthey are located near eachother on the same chrmGenetic recombination andlinkageRecombination of unlinkedgenes: independentassortment of chromosomesRecombination of linkedgenes: crossing overNew combination of alleles: variation fornormal selection
For a recessive sex-linked trait to be expressed- a female need two copies of the allele- male only one copy of allele (thussex-linked recessive disorders morecommon to males)
Color blindness:
Some disorder caused by recessive alleleson the X chromosome in humans:-Color blindness-Duchenne muscular dystrophy (1/3500 males)-Hemophilia
Hemophilia A (1 in 5,000-10,000 male births)
Hemophilia B (1 in 20,000-34,000 male births)
In mammalian females, on of the 2 X chrm. in each cell is randomly inactivated duringembryonic development
The inactive X condenses into a Barr body
If a female is heterozygous for a particular gene located on the X chrm., she will be amosaic for that character
Each chrm has hundreds or thousands of genes (except Y chrm)
Genes located on same chrm that tend to be inherited together are called linked genes
Morgan did other experiments with fruit flies to examine linkage of 2 character
bodycolor and wing size
The genetic findings of Mendel and Morgan relate to the chromosomal basis of recombination
Morgan found that body color and wing size are usually inherited together in specificcombinations (parental phenotypes)
Noted that these genes don’t assort independently and reasoned they were on same chrm
However, nonparental phenotypes were usually produced
genetic recombination, theproduction of offspring with combinations of traits differing from either parent
Offspring phenotype = parental phenotypes are called parental types
Offspring with nonparental phenotypes (new combinations of traits) are calledrecombinant types, or recombinants
A 50% frequency of recombination is observed for any two genes on differentchromosomes
Morgan discovered that genes can be linked, but the linkage was incomplete, becausesome recombinant phenotypes were observed
He proposed that some process must occasionally break the physical connection betweengenes on the same chrm
That mechanism was the crossing over of homologous chrm
Recombinant chromosomes bring alleles together in new combinations in gametes
Random fertilization increases further the number of variant combinations that can beproduced
This abundance of genetic variation is raw material upon which natural selection works
Mapping the distancebetween genes usingrecombination data:scientific inquiryC15.4: alterations of chrmnumber of structure causesome genetic disordersAbnormal chromosomenumberAlteration of chrmstructureHuman disorders due tochromosomal alterations
Alfred Sturtevant, one of Morgan’s students. Constructed a genetic map, an ordered listof the genetic loci along a particular chromosome
Sturtevant predicted that the farther apart two genes are, the higher the probability that acrossover will occur between them and therefore the higher recombination frequency
Linkage map is a genetic map of a chromosome based on recombination frequencies.Distances b/w genes can be expressed as map units; (= centimorgan), represents a %recombination frequency
Map units indicate relative distance and order, not preciselocation of genes
Genes that are far apart on the same chromosome
can have recombination frequency near %
the genes are physically linked, but geneticallyunlinked (behave as if on diff chrm)
Sturtevant used recombination frequencies to makelinkage maps of fruit fly genes….
Large-scale chrm alterations in human and othermammals often lead to spontaneous abortions (miscarriages) or cause a variety of development disorders
Plants tolerate such genetic changes better than animals do
In nondisjunction, during meiosis pairs of homologous chrm t separate normally- one gamete receives two of the same typeof chrm- another gamete receives no copy
A neuploidy results from fertilization of gametes in which nondisjunction occurred- a monosomic zygote has only one copy of aparticular chrm- a trisomic zygote has three copies of aparticular chromosome
Polyploidy is a condition in which an organismhas more than 2 complete sets of chrm-triploidy (3n) is three sets of chrm-tetraploidy (4n) is four sets of chrm
Plyploidy is common in plants, but not in animals
Breakage of a chrm can lead to four types of changes in chromosome structure
Alterations of chrm number and structure areassociated with some serious disorders
Some types of aneuploidy appear to upset thegenetic balance less than others….- down syndrome (trisomy 21)- Edwards syndrome (trisomy 18)- papau syndrome (trisomy 13)- turner syndrome (XO)- kleinfelter syndrome (XXY)

Activity (2)

You've already reviewed this. Edit your review.
Trey Fountain liked this
1 hundred reads

You're Reading a Free Preview

/*********** DO NOT ALTER ANYTHING BELOW THIS LINE ! ************/ var s_code=s.t();if(s_code)document.write(s_code)//-->