Explain Chemical equilibrium.If there is no chemical reaction or transfer of matter form one part of the system toanother is called Chemical equilibrium18.
Explain Thermal equilibrium.If the temperature difference between the system and surroundings is zero then itis in Thermal equilibrium.19.
Define Zeroth law of Thermodynamics.When two systems are separately in thermal equilibrium with a third system thenthey themselves are in thermal equilibrium with each other.20.
What are the limitations of first law of thermodynamics?1.
According to first law of thermodynamics heat and work are mutuallyconvertible during any cycle of a closed system. But this law does notspecify the possible conditions under which the heat is converted intowork.2.
According to the first law of thermodynamics it is impossible to transferheat from lower temperature to higher temperature.3.
It does not give any information regarding change of state or whether theprocess is possible or not.4.
The law does not specify the direction of heat and work.21.
What is perpetual motion machine of first kind?It is defined as a machine, which produces work energy without consuming anequivalent of energy from other source. It is impossible to obtain in actualpractice, because no machine can produce energy of its own without consumingany other form of energy.22.
Define Clausius statement.It is impossible for a self-acting machine working in a cyclic process, to transferheat from a body at lower temperature to a body at a higher temperature withoutthe aid of an external agency.23.
What is Perpetual motion machine of the second kind?A heat engine, which converts whole of the heat energy into mechanical work isknown as Perpetual motion machine of the second kind.24.
Define Kelvin Planck Statement.It is impossible to construct a heat engine to produce network in a complete cycleif it exchanges heat from a single reservoir at single fixed temperature.25.
Define Heat pump.A heat pump is a device, which is working in a cycle and transfers heat fromlower temperature to higher temperature.26.
Define Heat engine.Heat engine is a machine, which is used to convert the heat energy intomechanical work in a cyclic process.27.
What are the assumptions made on heat engine?1.
The source and sink are maintained at constant temperature.2.
The source and sink has infinite heat capacity.28.
State Carnot theorem.