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Introduction to Linux a Beginners Guide

Introduction to Linux a Beginners Guide

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Introduction to Linux – A Beginners Guide
Introduction to Linux – A BeginnersGuideKapil Sharma
 Version 1.00 20061025 EditionCopyright © 2006 Kapil SharmaFor pdf format, visit Introduction to Linux – A Beginners GuideThe original work “Introduction to Linux: A Hands on Guide” by Machtelt Garrels,Xalasys.com Version 1.23 20060725 Edition is Copyright © 2002, 2003, 2004, 2005,2006 Machtelt Garrels, licensed by the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License.For pdf, text or other formats of the original work, visithttp://www.tldp.org/LDP/intro-linux/ 
Table of Contents
 
Introduction to Linux – A Beginners GuideRevision History of the original work:........................................................................75.Contributions...................................................................................................................10  5.1.From the original author ......................................................................................10  From linux4biz.net.....................................................................................................10  6.Feedback .........................................................................................................................10  7.Copyright information................................................................................................11  8.What do you need?......................................................................................................11  9.Conventions used in this document............................................................................12  Table 1. Typographic and usage conventions............................................................12  10.Organization of this document..................................................................................13  1.What is Linux?................................................................................................................14  1.1.History ........................................................................................................................................15  1.1.1.UNIX.................................................................................................................15  1.1.2.Linus and Linux................................................................................................16  1.1.3.Current application of Linux systems...............................................................17  1.2.The user interface ........................................................................................................................................17  1.2.1.Is Linux difficult?.............................................................................................17  1.2.2.Linux for non-experienced users......................................................................18  1.3.Does Linux have a future? ........................................................................................................................................19  1.3.1.Open Source......................................................................................................19  1.3.2.Ten years of experience at your service............................................................19  1.4.Properties of Linux..................................................................................................21  1.4.1.Linux Pros.........................................................................................................21  1.4.2.Linux Cons........................................................................................................22  1.5.Linux Flavors ........................................................................................................................................23  1.5.1.Linux and GNU.................................................................................................23  1.5.2.GNU/Linux.......................................................................................................25  1.5.3.Which distribution should I install?..................................................................25  1.6.Summary..................................................................................................................26  1.7.Exercises..................................................................................................................26  2.Using Linux Desktop and Graphical Interface Tools.....................................................28  2.1.Linux in the office....................................................................................................28  2.1.1.History...............................................................................................................28  2.1.2.Linux desktop environment..............................................................................28  2.1.2.1.Gnome desktop..............................................................................................28  2.1.2.2.KDE desktop..................................................................................................28  2.2.Desktop Applications...............................................................................................29  2.2.1.Office Applications ....................................................................................................................................29  2.2.2.Internet..............................................................................................................29  2.2.3.Multimedia........................................................................................................29  2.2.4.Graphics............................................................................................................30  2Copyright (c) by authorsunder the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License
 
Introduction to Linux – A Beginners Guide2.2.5.System management.........................................................................................30  2.2.6.File Browser ......................................................................................................30  3.Quickstart........................................................................................................................30  3.1.Logging in, activating the user interface and logging out ........................................................................................................................................31  3.1.1.Introduction.......................................................................................................31  3.1.2.Graphical mode.................................................................................................31  3.1.3.Text mode.........................................................................................................33  3.2.Absolute basics........................................................................................................34  3.2.1.The commands..................................................................................................34  3.2.2.General remarks................................................................................................34  3.2.3.Using Bash features..........................................................................................35  3.3.Getting help..............................................................................................................37  3.3.1.Be warned.........................................................................................................37  3.3.2.The man pages..................................................................................................37  3.3.3.More info..........................................................................................................39  3.4.Summary..................................................................................................................43  3.5.Exercises..................................................................................................................44  3.5.1.Connecting and disconnecting..........................................................................44  3.5.2.Passwords..........................................................................................................44  3.5.3.Directories.........................................................................................................45  3.5.4.Files...................................................................................................................46  3.5.5.Getting help.......................................................................................................46  4.About files and the file system........................................................................................47  4.1.General overview of the Linux file system..............................................................47  4.1.1.Files...................................................................................................................47  4.2.Orientation in the file system...................................................................................49  4.2.1.The path............................................................................................................49  4.2.2.Absolute and relative paths...............................................................................50  4.2.3.The most important files and directories..........................................................51  4.2.4.Your home directory.........................................................................................53  4.2.5.The most important configuration files.............................................................54  4.2.6.The most common devices................................................................................56  4.2.7.The most common variable files.......................................................................57  4.3.Manipulating files....................................................................................................59  4.3.1.Viewing file properties.....................................................................................59  4.3.2.Creating and deleting files and directories........................................................62  4.3.3.Finding files......................................................................................................66  4.3.4.More ways to view file content.........................................................................70  4.3.5.Linking files......................................................................................................72  4.4.File security..............................................................................................................74  4.4.1.Access rights: Linux's first line of defense.......................................................74  4.4.2.The tools............................................................................................................76  4.5.Summary..................................................................................................................82  4.6.Exercises..................................................................................................................84  4.6.1.Partitions...........................................................................................................84  3Copyright (c) by authorsunder the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License

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