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Published by: mishra_nehanjali on Nov 13, 2011
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, a renewable energy source, is biological material derived from living, or recentlyliving organisms,such as wood, waste, and alcohol fuels. Biomass is commonly plant matter grown to generate electricity or produce heat. For example, forest residues (such as dead trees, branches and tree stumps, yard clippings and wood chips may be used as biomass. However, biomass also includes plant or animal matter used for production of fibers or chemicals. Biomassmay also include biodegradable wastes that can be burnt as fuel. It excludes organic materialsuch as fossil fuel which has been transformed by geological processes into substances such ascoal or petroleum.Industrial biomass can be grown from numerous types of plant, including miscanthus,switchgrass, hemp, corn, poplar, willow, sorghum, sugarcane, and a variety of tree species,ranging from eucalyptus to oil palm (palm oil). The particular plant used is usually not importantto the end products, but it does affect the processing of the raw material.Although fossil fuels have their origin in ancient biomass, they are not considered biomass by thegenerally accepted definition because they contain carbon that has been "out" of the carbon cyclefor a very long time. Their combustion therefore disturbs the carbon dioxide content in theatmosphere.Plastics from biomass, like some recently developed to dissolve in seawater, are made the sameway as petroleum-based plastics. These plastics are actually cheaper to manufacture and meet or exceed most performance standards, but they lack the same water resistance or longevity asconventional plastics.
Biomass – this is an organic matter from plants, animals and micro-organism grownon land and water and their derivatives. The energy obtained from biomass is calledbiomass energy. Biomass is considered as a renewable source of energy.Biomass resources:In our country there is a great potential for application of biomass as an altersources of energy. The following are the biomass resources:1. concentrated wastes :(1) municipal solid (2) sewage wood product(3) industrial waste (4) manure at large lots.2. Dispersed waste residue:(1) crop residue (2) Logging residue(3) disposed manner .3. Harvested biomass:
(1) standing biomass (2) biomass energyplantations.
Biomass conversion process:
 The following processes
are used for
the biomassconversion to energy or biofuels
1. Direct combustion.2. Thermo chemical conversion.3. Biochemical conversion.
Biogas plants
Biogas The main sources of production of biogas is wet cow dung some of other sourcesare :(1) Sewage(2) crop residue(3) vegetable wastes(4) Water hyacinth(5) Alga(6) poultry droppings(7) pig manure(8) ocean kelp
Biogas Applications
Biogas is a flameable fuelgas with 60% CH4 and rest CO2. The gas can beupgraded by removel of CO2 with water scuribbing and the gas with high heatingvalue can be usedin i.C. Engine . The main Application of biogas are:(1)Cooking.(2) Domestic lighting and heating.(3) I.C. engine(4) fuel cells
Types of biogas plants
:1.Continuous type:-- Single stage type Two stage type
2.Batch Type3. Fixed dome type4. Modified fixed dome type5. Flexible bag type 6. Floating dome type6.Floating dome type
Biomass sources
Biomass energy is derived from three distinct energy sources: wood, waste, and alcohol fuels.Wood energy is derived both from direct use of harvested wood as a fuel and from wood wastestreams. The largest source of energy from wood is pulping liquor or “black liquor,” a waste product from processes of the pulp, paper and paperboard industry. Waste energy is the second-largest source of biomass energy. The main contributors of waste energy are municipal solidwaste (MSW), manufacturing waste, and landfill gas. Biomass alcohol fuel, or ethanol, is derivedalmost exclusively from corn. Its principal use is as an oxygenate in gasoline.
Biomass can be converted to other usable forms of energy like methane gas or transportationfuels like ethanol and biodiesel. Methane gas is the main ingredient of natural gas. Smelly stuff,like rotting garbage, and agricultural and human waste, release methane gas - also called "landfillgas" or "biogas." Crops like corn and sugar cane can be fermented to produce the transportationfuel, ethanol. Biodiesel, another transportation fuel, can be produced from left-over food products like vegetable oils and animal fats. Also, Biomass to liquids (BTLs) and cellulosicethanol are still under research.
Biomass conversion process to useful energy
There are a number of technological options available to make use of a wide variety of biomasstypes as a renewable energy source. Conversion technologies may release the energy directly, inthe form of heat or electricity, or may convert it to another form, such as liquid biofuel or combustible biogas. While for some classes of biomass resource there may be a number of usageoptions, for others there may be only one appropriate technology.
Thermal conversion
These are processes in which heat is the dominant mechanism to convert the biomass intoanother chemical form. The basic alternatives are separated principally by the extent to which the

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