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Table Of Contents

1. Introduction
PART A: COMMON ASPECTS OF BIOFUELS
2. Biomass Potential
3. Biofuel Policies
3.1. Biofuel Policy in the EU
3.2. Market Barriers of Biofuels
3.3. Biofuel Standardization
3.4. International Trade of Biofuels
3.4.1 Trade of Biodiesel and Related Products
3.4.2 Trade of Bioethanol
4. Biofuel Life Cycle
4.1. Energy Balance Methodologies
4.2. Biofuel Emissions
4.2.2 Vehicle Emission Standards
4.3. Sustainability of Biofuels
4.4. Economy of Biofuels
4.5. Consideration of Co-Products
PART B: TYPES OF BIOFUELS
5. Bioethanol
5.1. Feedstock Production
5.1.1 Sugar Crops
5.1.2 Starch Crops
5.1.3 Cellulosic Feedstock
5.2. Bioethanol Production
5.2.1 Sugar-to-Ethanol Process
5.2.2 Starch-to-Ethanol Process
5.2.3 Cellulose-to-Ethanol Process
5.2.4 Distillation and Dehydration Process
5.3. Properties of Bioethanol
5.4. Technology Applications for Bioethanol
5.4.1 Spark Ignition Engines
5.4.2 Compression Ignition Engines
5.4.3 Fuel Cells
5.5. Standardization of Bioethanol
5.7.2 Toxic Exhaust Emissions
5.8. Sustainability of Bioethanol
5.8.1 Water Issues
5.8.2 Land Use and Biodiversity
5.8.3 Human Health
5.9. Economy of Bioethanol
6.1.1 Oilseed Crops
6.1.2 Microalgae
6.1.3 Animal Fats
6.1.4 Waste Oils
6.2. Fuel production
6.2.1 Oil Extraction
6.2.2 Oil Refining
6.2.3 Transesterification
6.3. Properties and Use of Lipid Biofuels
6.3.1 Properties of Pure Plant Oil (PPO)
6.3.2 Properties of Biodiesel
6.4. Technology Applications for Lipid Biofuels
6.4.1 Compression Ignition Engines for Biodiesel Use
6.4.2 Compression Ignition Engines for PPO Use
6.5. Standardization of Lipid Biofuels
6.5.1 Standardization of PPO
6.5.2 Standardization of Biodiesel
6.6. Energy Balance of Lipid Biofuels
6.7. Emissions of Lipid Biofuels
6.7.1 Greenhouse Gas Emissions
6.7.2 Toxic Exhaust Emissions
6.8. Sustainability of Lipid Biofuels
6.8.1 Water Issues
6.8.2 Land Use and Biodiversity
6.8.3 Human Health
6.9. Economy of Lipid Biofuels
7. BtL Fuels
7.1. Feedstock Production
7.2. BtL Production
7.2.1 Gasification
7.2.2 Gas Cleaning
7.2.3 Synthesis Process
7.3. Properties and Emissions of BtL Fuels
8. Biomethane
8.1. Feedstock Production
8.2. Biomethane Production
8.2.1 Digestion Process
8.2.2 Digester Types
8.2.3 Biogas purification
8.3. Properties and Use of Biomethane
8.4. Technology Applications for Biomethane
8.4.1 Infrastructure Requirements for Biomethane
8.4.2 Vehicle Technologies for Biomethane
8.5. Standardization of Biomethane
8.6. Biomethane Emissions
8.6.1 Greenhouse Gas Emissions
8.6.2 Toxic Exhaust Emissions
8.7. Sustainability of Biomethane
8.8. Economy of Biomethane
9. Biohydrogen
9.1. Biohydrogen Processing
9.2. Use of Biohydrogen
PART C: THE FUTURE OF BIOFUELS
11. Integrated Refining Concepts
12. Strategies for New Vehicle Technologies
12. Strategies for New Vehicle Technologies
13. Glossary and Abbreviations
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Biofuel Technology Handbook Version2 D5

Biofuel Technology Handbook Version2 D5

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Published by zniperx

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Published by: zniperx on Nov 13, 2011
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11/13/2011

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