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Chuong 12 - Bao Duong, Sua Chua Va Khac Phuc Su Co He Thong Lanh

Chuong 12 - Bao Duong, Sua Chua Va Khac Phuc Su Co He Thong Lanh



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Published by: api-3841540 on Oct 18, 2008
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ng XII
o d
ng, s
a ch
a v\u00e0 kh
c ph
ng l
12.1 b\u1ea3o d\u01b0\u1ee1ng h\u1ec7 th\u1ed1ng l\u1ea1nh
12.1.1. B\u1ea3o d\u01b0\u1ee1ng m\u00e1y n\u00e9n
Vi\u1ec7c b\u1ea3o d\u01b0\u1ee1ng m\u00e1y n\u00e9n l\u00e0 c\u1ef1c k\u1ef3 quan tr\u1ecdng\u0111\u1ea3m b\u1ea3o cho h\u1ec7
th\u1ed1ng ho\u1ea1t\u0111\u1ed9ng\u0111\u01b0\u1ee3c t\u1ed1t, b\u1ec1n, hi\u1ec7u su\u1ea5t l\u00e0m vi\u1ec7c cao nh\u1ea5t,\u0111\u1eb7c bi\u1ec7t
\u0111\u1ed1iv\u1edbi c\u00e1c m\u00e1y c\u00f3 c\u00f4ng su\u1ea5tl\u1edbn.
M\u00e1y l\u1ea1nh d\u1ec5 x\u1ea3y ra s\u1ef1 c\u1ed1\u1edf trong 3 th\u1eddi k\u1ef3 : Th\u1eddi k\u1ef3 ban\u0111\u1ea7u khi
m\u1edbi ch\u1ea1y th\u1eed v\u00e0 th\u1eddi k\u1ef3\u0111\u00e3 x\u1ea3y ra c\u00e1c hao m\u00f2n c\u00e1c chi ti\u1ebft m\u00e1y.
a. C\u1ee9 sau 6.000 gi\u1edd th\u00ec ph\u1ea3i\u0111\u1ea1i tu m\u00e1y m\u1ed9t l\u1ea7n. D\u00f9 m\u00e1y \u00edt ch\u1ea1y th\u00ec
01 n\u0103m c\u0169ng ph\u1ea3i\u0111\u1ea1i tu 01 l\u1ea7n.
b. C\u00e1c m\u00e1y d\u1eebng l\u00e2u ng\u00e0y , tr\u01b0\u1edbc khi ch\u1ea1y l\u1ea1i ph\u1ea3i ti\u1ebfn h\u00e0nh ki\u1ec3m
tra.C\u00f4ng t\u00e1c\u0111\u1ea1i tu v\u00e0 ki\u1ec3m tra bao g\u1ed3m:
(1) - Ki\u1ec3m tra\u0111\u1ed9 k\u00edn v\u00e0 t\u00ecnh tr\u1ea1ng c\u1ee7a c\u00e1c van x\u1ea3 van h\u00fat m\u00e1y n\u00e9n.

(2) - Ki\u1ec3m tra b\u00ean trong m\u00e1y n\u00e9n, t\u00ecnh tr\u1ea1ng d\u1ea7u, c\u00e1c chi ti\u1ebft m\u00e1y c\u00f3 b\u1ecb hoen r\u1ec9, lau ch\u00f9i c\u00e1c chi ti\u1ebft. Trong c\u00e1c k\u1ef3 \u0111\u1ea1i tu c\u1ea7n ph\u1ea3i th\u00e1o c\u00e1c chi ti\u1ebft, lau ch\u00f9i v\u00e0 thay d\u1ea7u m\u1ee1.

- Ki\u1ec3m tra d\u1ea7u b\u00ean trong cacte qua c\u1eeda quan s\u00e1t d\u1ea7u. N\u1ebfu th\u1ea5y c\u00f3 b\u1ed9t kim lo\u1ea1i m\u00e0u v\u00e0ng, c\u1eb7n b\u1ea9n th\u00ec ph\u1ea3i ki\u1ec3m tra nguy\u00ean nh\u00e2n. C\u00f3 nhi\u1ec1u nguy\u00ean nh\u00e2n do b\u1ea9n tr\u00ean\u0111\u01b0\u1eddng h\u00fat, do m\u00e0i m\u00f2n c\u00e1c chi ti\u1ebft m\u00e1y- Ki\u1ec3m m\u1ee9c\u0111\u1ed9 m\u00e0i m\u00f2n c\u1ee7a c\u00e1c thi\u1ebft b\u1ecb nh\u01b0 tr\u1ee5c khu\u1ef7u, c\u00e1c\u0111\u1ec7m

k\u00edn, v\u00f2ng b\u1ea1c, pitt\u00f4ng, v\u00f2ng g\u0103ng, thanh truy\u1ec1n vv.. so v\u1edbi k\u00edch th\u01b0\u1edbc ti\u00eau chu\u1ea9n. M\u1ed7i chi ti\u1ebft y\u00eau c\u1ea7u\u0111\u1ed9 m\u00f2n t\u1ed1i\u0111a kh\u00e1c nhau. Khi\u0111\u1ed9 m\u00f2n v\u01b0\u1ee3t q\u00faa m\u1ee9c cho ph\u00e9p th\u00ec ph\u1ea3i thay th\u1ebf c\u00e1i m\u1edbi.

(3) - Th\u1eed t\u00e1c\u0111\u1ed9ng c\u1ee7a c\u00e1c thi\u1ebft b\u1ecb\u0111i\u1ec1u khi\u1ec3n HP, OP, WP, LP v\u00e0
b\u1ed9 ph\u1eadn c\u1ea5p d\u1ea7u
(4) - Lau ch\u00f9i v\u1ec7 sinh b\u1ed9 l\u1ecdc h\u00fat m\u00e1y n\u00e9n.
\u0110\u1ed1i v\u1edbi c\u00e1c m\u00e1y n\u00e9n l\u1ea1nh c\u00e1c b\u1ed9l\u1ecdc bao g\u1ed3m: L\u1ecdc h\u00fat m\u00e1y n\u00e9n,
bb\u1ed9 l\u1ecdc d\u1ea7u ki\u1ec3u\u0111\u0129a v\u00e0 b\u1ed9 l\u1ecdc tinh.
-\u0110\u1ed1i v\u1edbi b\u1ed9 l\u1ecdc h\u00fat: Ki\u1ec3m tra xem l\u01b0\u1edbi c\u00f3 b\u1ecb t\u1eafc, b\u1ecb r\u00e1ch hay
kh\u00f4ng. Sau\u0111\u00f3 s\u1eed d\u1ee5ng c\u00e1c ho\u00e1 ch\u1ea5t chuy\u00ean d\u1ee5ng\u0111\u1ec3 lau r\u1eeda l\u01b0\u1edbi l\u1ecdc.

-\u0110\u1ed1i v\u1edbi b\u1ed9 l\u1ecdc tinh c\u1ea7n ki\u1ec3m tra xem b\u1ed9 l\u1ecdc c\u00f3 xoay nh\u1eb9 nh\u00e0ng kh\u00f4ng. N\u1ebfu c\u1eb7n b\u1eabn b\u00e1m gi\u1eefa c\u00e1c mi\u1ebfng g\u1ea1t th\u00ec s\u1eed d\u1ee5ng mi\u1ebfng th\u00e9p m\u1ecfng nh\u01b0 dao lam\u0111\u1ec3 g\u1ea1t c\u1eb7n b\u1ea9n. Sau\u0111\u00f3 ch\u00f9i s\u1ea1ch b\u00ean trong. Sau khi ch\u00f9i xong th\u1ed5i h\u01a1i n\u00e9n t\u1eeb trong ra\u0111\u1ec3 l\u00e0m s\u1ea1ch b\u1ed9 l\u1ecdc.

(5) - Ki\u1ec3m tra h\u1ec7 th\u1ed1ng n\u01b0\u1edbc gi\u1ea3i nhi\u1ec7t.
(6) - V\u1ec7 sinh b\u00ean trong m\u00f4 t\u01a1: Trong qu\u00e1 tr\u00ecnh l\u00e0m vi\u1ec7c kh\u00f4ng kh\u00ed
\u0111\u01b0\u1ee3c h\u00fat v\u00e0o gi\u1ea3i nhi\u1ec7t cu\u1ed9n d\u00e2y m\u00f4 t\u01a1 v\u00e0 cu\u1ed1n theo b\u1ee5i kh\u00e1 nhi\u1ec1u,
b\u1ee5i\u0111\u00f3 l\u00e2u ng\u00e0y t\u00edch t\u1ee5 tr\u1edf th\u00e0nh l\u1edbp c\u00e1ch nhi\u1ec7t\u1ea3nh h\u01b0\u1edfng gi\u1ea3i nhi\u1ec7t
cu\u1ed9n d\u00e2y.

- B\u1ea3o d\u01b0\u1ee1ng\u0111\u1ecbnh k\u1ef3 : Theo quy\u0111\u1ecbnh c\u1ee9 sau 72\u0111\u1ebfn 100 gi\u1edd l\u00e0m vi\u1ec7c\u0111\u1ea7u ti\u00ean ph\u1ea3i ti\u1ebfn h\u00e0nh thay d\u1ea7u m\u00e1y n\u00e9n. Trong 5 l\u1ea7n\u0111\u1ea7u ti\u00ean ph\u1ea3i ti\u1ebfn h\u00e0nh thay d\u1ea7u ho\u00e0n to\u00e0n, b\u1eb1ng c\u00e1ch m\u1edf n\u1eafp b\u00ean th\u00e1o s\u1ea1ch d\u1ea7u, d\u00f9ng gi\u1ebb s\u1ea1ch th\u1ea5m h\u1ebft d\u1ea7u b\u00ean trong c\u00e1c te, v\u1ec7 sinh s\u1ea1ch s\u1ebd v\u00e0 ch\u00e2m d\u1ea7u m\u1edbi v\u00e0o v\u1edbi s\u1ed1 l\u01b0\u1ee3ng\u0111\u1ea7y\u0111\u1ee7.

- Ki\u1ec3m tra d\u1ef1 ph\u00f2ng : C\u1ee9 sau 3 th\u00e1ng ph\u1ea3i m\u1edf v\u00e0 ki\u1ec3m tra c\u00e1c chi ti\u1ebft quan tr\u1ecdng c\u1ee7a m\u00e1y nh\u01b0 : xilanh, piston, tay quay thanh truy\u1ec1n, cl\u1eafppe, n\u1eafpb\u00edt vv...

- Ph\u00e1 c\u1eb7n \u00e1o n\u01b0\u1edbc l\u00e0m m\u00e1t : N\u1ebfu tr\u00ean \u00e1o n\u01b0\u1edbc l\u00e0m m\u00e1t b\u1ecb\u0111\u00f3ng c\u00e1u c\u1eb7n nhi\u1ec1u th\u00ec ph\u1ea3i ti\u1ebfn h\u00e0nh x\u1ea3 b\u1ecf c\u1eb7n b\u1eb1ng c\u00e1ch d\u00f9ng h\u1ed5n h\u1ee3p axit clohidric 25% ng\u00e2m 8\u00f7 12 gi\u1edd sau\u0111\u00f3 r\u1eeda s\u1ea1ch b\u1eb1ng dung d\u1ecbch NaOH 10\u00f7 15% v\u00e0 r\u1eeda l\u1ea1i b\u1eb1ng n\u01b0\u1edbc s\u1ea1ch.

- Ti\u1ebfn h\u00e0nh c\u00e2n ch\u1ec9nh v\u00e0 c\u0103ng l\u1ea1i d\u00e2y\u0111ai c\u1ee7a m\u00f4t\u01a1 khi th\u1ea5y l\u1ecfng.
C\u00f4ng vi\u1ec7c n\u00e0y ti\u1ebfn h\u00e0nh ki\u1ec3m tra h\u00e0ng tu\u1ea7n.
12.1.2. B\u1ea3o d\u01b0\u1ee1ng thi\u1ebft b\u1ecb ng\u01b0ng t\u1ee5
T\u00ecnh tr\u1ea1ng l\u00e0m vi\u1ec7c c\u1ee7a thi\u1ebft b\u1ecb ng\u01b0ng t\u1ee5\u1ea3nh h\u01b0\u1edfng nhi\u1ec1u\u0111\u1ebfn hi\u1ec7u

su\u1ea5t l\u00e0m vi\u1ec7c c\u1ee7a h\u1ec7 th\u1ed1ng,\u0111\u1ed9 an to\u00e0n,\u0111\u1ed9 b\u1ec1n c\u1ee7a c\u00e1c thi\u1ebft b\u1ecb.
B\u1ea3o d\u01b0\u1ee1ng thi\u1ebft b\u1ecb ng\u01b0ng t\u1ee5 bao g\u1ed3m c\u00e1c c\u00f4ng vi\u1ec7c ch\u00ednh sau\u0111\u00e2y:
- V\u1ec7 sinh b\u1ec1 m\u1eb7t trao\u0111\u1ed5i nhi\u1ec7t.
- X\u1ea3 d\u1ea7u t\u00edch t\u1ee5 b\u00ean trong thi\u1ebft b\u1ecb.
- B\u1ea3o d\u01b0\u1ee1ng c\u00e2n ch\u1ec9nh b\u01a1m qu\u1ea1t gi\u1ea3i nhi\u1ec7t
- X\u1ea3 kh\u00ed kh\u00f4ng ng\u01b0ng\u1edf thi\u1ebft b\u1ecb ng\u01b0ng t\u1ee5.
- V\u1ec7 sinh b\u1ec3 n\u01b0\u1edbc, x\u1ea3 c\u1eb7n.
- Ki\u1ec3m tra thay th\u1ebf c\u00e1c v\u00f2i phun n\u01b0\u1edbc, c\u00e1c t\u1ea5m ch\u1eafn n\u01b0\u1edbc (n\u1ebfu c\u00f3)
- S\u01a1n s\u1eeda b\u00ean ngo\u00e0i

- S\u1eeda ch\u1eefa thay th\u1ebf thi\u1ebft b\u1ecb\u0111i\u1ec7n, c\u00e1c thi\u1ebft b\u1ecb an to\u00e0n v\u00e0\u0111i\u1ec1u khi\u1ec3n
li\u00ean quan. B\u1ea3o d\u01b0\u1ee1ng b\u00ecnh ng\u01b0ng
\u0110\u1ec3v\u1ec7 sinh b\u00ecnh ng\u01b0ng c\u00f3 th\u1ec3ti\u1ebfn h\u00e0nh v\u1ec7 sinh b\u1eb1ng th\u1ee7 c\u00f4ng ho\u1eb7c
c\u00f3 th\u1ec3 s\u1eed d\u1ee5ng ho\u00e1 ch\u1ea5t\u0111\u1ec3 v\u1ec7 sinh.

Khi c\u00e1u c\u1eb7n b\u00e1m v\u00e0o b\u00ean trong th\u00e0nh l\u1edbp d\u00e0y, b\u00e1m ch\u1eb7t th\u00ec n\u00ean s\u1eed d\u1ee5ng ho\u00e1 ch\u1ea5t ph\u00e1 c\u00e1u c\u1eb7n. R\u1eeda b\u1eb1ng dung d\u1ecbch NaCO3 \u1ea5m, sau \u0111\u00f3 th\u1ed5i kh\u00f4 b\u1eb1ng kh\u00ed n\u00e9n.

Trong tr\u01b0\u1eddng h\u1ee3p c\u00e1u c\u1eb7n d\u1ec5 v\u1ec7 sinh th\u00ec c\u00f3 th\u1ec3 ti\u1ebfn h\u00e0nh b\u1eb1ng ph\u01b0\u01a1ng ph\u00e1p v\u1ec7 sinh c\u01a1 h\u1ecdc. Khi ti\u1ebfn h\u00e0nh v\u1ec7 sinh, ph\u1ea3i th\u00e1o c\u00e1c n\u1eafp b\u00ecnh, d\u00f9ng que th\u00e9p c\u00f3 qu\u1ea5n v\u1ea3i\u0111\u1ec3 lau ch\u00f9i b\u00ean trong\u0111\u01b0\u1eddng\u1ed1ng. C\u1ea7n ch\u00fa \u00fd trong qu\u00e1 tr\u00ecnh v\u1ec7 sinh kh\u00f4ng\u0111\u01b0\u1ee3c l\u00e0m x\u00e2y x\u01b0\u1edbc b\u00ean trong

\u0111\u01b0\u1eddng \u1ed1ng, c\u00e1c v\u1ebft x\u01b0\u1edbc c\u00f3 th\u1ec3 l\u00e0m cho \u0111\u01b0\u1eddng \u1ed1ng hoen r\u1ec9ho\u1eb7c t\u00edch
t\u1ee5 b\u1eabn d\u1ec5 h\u01a1n.\u0110\u1eb7c bi\u1ec7t khi s\u1eed d\u1ee5ng\u1ed1ng\u0111\u1ed3ng th\u00ec ph \u1ea3i c\u00e0ng c\u1ea9n th\u1eadn.
- V\u1ec7 sinh th\u00e1p gi\u1ea3i nhi\u1ec7t, thay n\u01b0\u1edbc m\u1edbi.
- X\u1ea3 d\u1ea7u : N\u00f3i chung d\u1ea7u \u00edt khi t\u00edch t\u1ee5 trong b\u00ecnh ng\u01b0ng m\u00e0 ch\u1ea3y
theo\u0111\u01b0\u1eddng l\u1ecfng v\u1ec1 b\u00ecnh ch\u1ee9a n\u00ean th\u1ef1c t\u1ebf th\u01b0\u1eddng kh\u00f4ng c\u00f3.
-\u0110\u1ecbnh k\u1ef3 x\u1ea3 air v\u00e0 c\u1eb7n b\u1eabn\u1edf c\u00e1c n\u1eafp b\u00ecnh v\u1ec1 ph\u00eda\u0111\u01b0\u1eddng n\u01b0\u1edbc gi\u1ea3i
- X\u1ea3 kh\u00ed kh\u00f4ng ng\u01b0ng trong b\u00ecnh ng\u01b0ng: Khi \u00e1p su\u1ea5t trong b\u00ecnh
kh\u00e1c v\u1edbi \u00e1p su\u1ea5t ng\u01b0ng t\u1ee5 c\u1ee7a m\u00f4i ch\u1ea5t\u1edf c\u00f9ng nhi\u1ec7t\u0111\u1ed9 th\u00ec ch\u1ee9ng t\u1ecf

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