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Finite Element Analysis of Screw Compressor Ansys2006

Finite Element Analysis of Screw Compressor Ansys2006

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Ansys India Conference 2006 , Conference Proceedings
Ansys India Conference 2006 , Conference Proceedings

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Published by: api-3842143 on Oct 18, 2008
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Finite Element Analysis of Screw Compressor
Technology Development
Page 1 of 19
Elgi Equipments Ltd
Finite Element Analysis of Screw Compressor

M. Selvaraji
Technology Development,
Elgi Equipments Ltd

Abstract
There is a growing demand for all types of screw compressors in the industry due to user requirements.
Design and construction of screw compressors are demanding tasks that require advanced calculations and
theoretical knowledge. The clearances in screw compressors play a major role in performance and reliability.
Screw compressors operate with tip speeds up to 100 m/sec and the discharge temperature up to 250\u00b0C. A
theoretical approach was needed in order to minimize the clearances while avoiding contact between the
rotors and the casing. It was established to calculate the clearances accurately by considering the structural and
thermal deformations. It is essential to incorporate the Computer Aided Engineering in the Screw

Compressor design and development process to validate the theoretical model. Analysis of the stress and deflection caused by external force and pressure, analysis of the thermal stress and deformation caused by heat transfer has been performed in the screw compressor rotors, rotor and bearing housings by using Ansys. Based on the analysis results, a prototype compressor was built and tested. The reliability and performance of screw compressor was established. The design based on this procedure makes the screw

compressor to reach the customer without any teething troubles. Results of the analysis are presented in the
paper.
(Key words: Screw compressor, clearance management, and structural, heat transfer and thermal analysis)
Introduction
Screw Compressor

A set of intermeshing helical screw rotors is housed in the housing of the screw compressor. The rotor with profile outside the pitch circle is called male or main rotor, the rotor with profile inside the pitch circle is called female or gate rotor. The ball bearing on the rotors takes axial forces of the screw compressor. Similarly, the cylindrical roller bearing on both ends of the rotor receives radial forces from the screw compressor.

Screw compressors are same as piston compressors in the principle of the rise of the air pressure, one rotor acts as piston and other forms as cylinder in screw compressor and both belong to positive displacement compressors.

Finite Element Analysis of Screw Compressor
Technology Development
Page 2 of 19
Elgi Equipments Ltd
Types
Screw Compressors are classified based on principle of working, type of gas to be compressor and principle
of application as below.
\ue000\ue000\ue000\ue000\ue000\ue000\ue000\ue001\ue000\ue000\ue000
\ue000\ue000\ue000\ue000\ue002\ue003
\ue000\ue001\ue000\ue002\ue003
\ue000\ue001\ue000\ue002\ue003
s
compressor
Injected
-
Water
s
compressor
Dry
s
compressor
free
Oil
s
compressor
Gas
Process
s
compressor
ion
Refrigerat
s
compressor
Air
s
compressor
flooded
Oil
s
compressor
Screw
Design

In oil-free screw compressors, air does not contact the lubricating oil and the rotors don\u2019t contact directly and remain space between each other. Male rotors drive female rotors through timing gear and it keeps the space between rotors. The main components of screw compressors like bearings, gears etc are lubricated by methods of normal lubrication, and isolating shaft seals are applied between these lubricated parts and the compression chamber.

In oil-flooded screw compressors, the lubricant is injected into the compressed air, which helps to lubricate, compress, cool and reduce noise. There is no timing gear in oil-flooded screw compressors, for the pair of rotors can work the purpose, the male rotor drive the female rotor directly.

In water-injected screw compressors, the water is injected to the compression chamber in order to reduce the discharge temperature in dry screw compressors and raise the single stage discharge pressure. As water can not be used for lubrication, timing gear is also designed in these compressors

Finite Element Analysis of Screw Compressor
Technology Development
Page 3 of 19
Elgi Equipments Ltd
Theoretical approach to calculate the clearances
The performance of any screw compressor depends on the following design and operating parameters.
1. Sealing line length
2. Blow hole area

3. Radial clearance
4. Interlobe clearance
5. Axial clearance

Sealing line
When the male and female rotors of screw compressors mesh, the surfaces of two rotors contact with each
other forming a space curve which is Sealing line.
Blow hole Area

The tip of the contact line of the rotor usually can not reach the intersecting line between the cylinder holes of the male and female rotors, and form a space curve triangle between the top of contact line and rotor cylinder hole of the case, which is called blowhole area.

The significance of the sealing line length and blow hole area is depends on the type of the profile and type
of application and if the profile is optimized for certain application, these parameters are fixed once for all.
The calculation of manufacturing and operating clearances namely, radial, interlobe and axial clearances
are directly depend on the following parameters.

1. Structural deflection of the rotors due to pressure
2. Structural expansion of the housing bores due to pressure
3. Torsional twist of the rotors
4. Backlash of the synchronizing gears (incase of dry and water injected compressors)
5. Thermal expansion of rotors due to the thermal loading due to compression
6. Thermal expansion of housing bore due to the thermal loading due to compression
7. Thermal expansion of the housing center distance of the bores due to thermal loading

In the above list, first 3 parameters can be calculated by using the theoretical formulae with simplified
geometry with assumption and can also be verified using analysis.

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