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4491918 Google and Our Privacy

4491918 Google and Our Privacy

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Published by: john on Oct 18, 2008
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05/13/2012

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Final Version of our investigations into:
Report on dangers and opportunities posed bylarge search engines, particularly Google
September 30, 2007H. Maurer, Co-author, editor and responsible for the project, Institute forInformation Systems and Computer Media, Graz University of TechnologyCo-authors in alphabetical order:Dipl. Ing. Dr. Tilo Balke, L3S HannoverProfessor Dr. Frank Kappe, TU GrazDipl. Ing. Narayanan Kulathuramaiyer, TU GrazPriv. Dozent Dr. Stefan Weber, Uni SalzburgDipl. Ing. Bilal Zaka, TU GrazWe want to acknowledge input from Professor Dr. Nick Scerbakov, Univ. Doz.Dr. Denis Helic, both TU Graz, and we want to thank Mrs. M. Lampl for herinfinite patience with various versions of this work and her formatting it into asomewhat coherent document.We want to particularly thank the Austrian Federal Ministry of Transport,Innvoation and Technology (Bundesministerium für Verkehr, Innovation undTechnologie) for the financial support of this report.
 
 2
Table of Contents
Overview.................................................................................................................................................3
 
Executive Summary: The Power of Google and other Search engines...................................................5
 
Introduction : A guide how to read this document..................................................................................7
 
Section 1: Data Knowledge in the Google Galaxy- and Empirical Evidence of the Google-WikipediaConnection.........................................................................................................................................9
 
Section 2: Google not only as main door to reality, but also to the Google Copy Paste Syndrome: Anew cultural technique and its socio-cultural implications..............................................................20
 
Section 3: The new paradigm of plagiarism – and the changing concept of intellectual property........34
 
Section 4: Human and computer-based ways to detect plagiarism – and the urgent need for a new tool..........................................................................................................................................................46
 
Section 5: Design of a pilot project for advanced plagiarism detection................................................55
 
Section 6: Different kinds of plagiarism: How to avoid them, rather to detect them............................59
 
Section 7: Dangers posed by Google, other search engines and developments of Web 2.0................73
 
Section 8: Emerging Data Mining Applications: Advantages and Threats...........................................75
 
Section 9: Feeble European attempts to fight Google while Google’s strength is growing..................81
 
Section 10: Minimizing the Impact of Google on Plagiarism and IPR Violation tools........................93
 
Section 11: Reducing the influence of Google and other large commercial search engines by building50- 100 specilized ones in Europe..................................................................................................104
 
Section 12: Market Forces vs. Public Control of Basic Vital Services...............................................108
 
Section 13: The three-dimensional Web and „Second Life“...............................................................119
 
Section 14: Service oriented information supply model for knowledge workers...............................124
 
Section 15: Establishing an Austrian Portal........................................................................................130
 
Section 16: References for Sections 1-5..............................................................................................134
 
Appendix 1: A Comparison of Plagiarism Detection Tools................................................................137
 
Appendix 2: Plagiarism – a problem and how to fight it...................................................................143
 
Appendix 3: Why is Fighting Plagiarism and IPR Violation Suddenly of Paramount Importance?..151
 
Appendix 4: Restricting the View and Connecting the Dots – Dangers of a Web Search EngineMonopoly.......................................................................................................................................161
 
Appendix 5: Data Mining is becoming Extremely Powerful, but Dangerous.....................................169
 
Appendix 6: Emerging Data Mining Applications: Advantages and Threats.....................................180
 
List of Figures.....................................................................................................................................186
 
 
 3
Overview
The aim of our investigation was to discuss exactly what is formulated in the title. This will of courseconstitute a main part of this write-up. However, in the process of investigations it also became clearthat the focus has to be extended, not to just cover Google and search engines in an isolated fashion,but to also cover other Web 2.0 related phenomena, particularly Wikipedia, Blogs, and other relatedcommunity efforts.It was the purpose of our investigation to demonstrate:
 
Plagiarism and IPR violation are serious concerns in academia and in the commercial world
 
Current techniques to fight both are rudimentary, yet could be improved by a concentratedinitiative
 
One reason why the fight is difficult is the dominance of Google as THE major search engineand that Google is unwilling to cooperate
 
The monopolistic behaviour of Google is also threatening how we see the world, how we asindividuals are seen (complete loss of privacy) and is threatening even world economy (!)In our proposal we did present a list of typical sections that would be covered at varying depth, withthe possible replacement of one or the other by items that would emerge as still more important.The preliminary intended and approved list was:Section 1: To concentrate on Google as virtual monopoly, and Google’s reported support of Wikipedia. To find experimental evidence of this support or show that the reports are not more thanrumours.Section 2: To address the copy-past syndrome with socio-cultural consequences associated with it.Section 3: To deal with plagiarism and IPR violations as two intertwined topics: how they affectvarious players (teachers and pupils in school; academia; corporations; governmental studies, etc.). Toestablish that not enough is done concerning these issues, partially due to just plain ignorance. We willpropose some ways to alleviate the problem.Section 4: To discuss the usual tools to fight plagiarism and their shortcomings.Section 5: To propose ways to overcome most of above problems according to proposals byMaurer/Zaka. To examples, but to make it clear that do this more seriously a pilot project is necessarybeyond this particular study.Section 6: To briefly analyze various views of plagiarism as it is quite different in different fields(journalism, engineering, architecture, painting, …) and to present a concept that avoids plagiarismfrom the very beginning.Section 7: To point out the many other dangers of Google or Google-like undertakings: opportunisticranking, analysis of data as window into commercial future.Section 8: To outline the need of new international laws.Section 9: To mention the feeble European attempts to fight Google, despite Google’s growing power.Section 10. To argue that there is no way to catch up with Google in a frontal attack.

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