title of thesis
a study on farming possibilities of acorn by developing processed
food and breeding superior variety
ii. objectives and importance of research and development
1. objectives of this research and development
while the demand for acorn is increasing rapidly, its domestic production
is decreasing continuously. so most of the acorn supply depends on import.
t he quality of imported acorns is not so good as domestic ones, which
results in quality deterioration of acorn- processed foodstuffs.
to enhance the competitiveness of crop- raising industry under the
present trade circumstances regulated by wto, it is important that we
should enhance the price and quality competitiveness of present crops and
develop new substitute crops of much value added. this study has been
carried out on the hypothesis that the economization of acorn cultivation
could be a way of enhancing the competitiveness of crop raising industry.
the purpose of this study is to examine the possibility and conditions of
acorn as a new economical crop for farmers. t his thesis analyzes
systematically and comprehensively the possible development of
acorn- processed foodstuffs, their demand forecast, efficient techniques of
raising acorns, the breeding method of high- quality acorns and the
economic validity of acorn cultivation.
- 16 -
2. importance of this research and development
this study will contribute to the technical development of food
processing and agricultural production. from economic standpoint, this
study will go far toward enhancing our agronomic competitiveness and
balancing our trade payments. the development of related food- processing
industry, the effect of environmental protection and the supply of health
food are also worth mentioning as side effects of this study.
iii. content and scope of this research and development
the content of this study is 4 areas of acorn- processed- food
development, superior variety breeding, cultural technique development, and
economical efficiency analysis. the content and scope of each study area is
the area of acorn- processed food development has been subdivided into
acorn- peeling method, physicochemical analysis, kneading characteristics,
processed food development, preservative and functional properties, and
establishment of hallmark standards. the area of superior variety breeding
has been subdivided into distribution and vegetation investigation, elite tree
selection test, vegetative reproduction, superior tree cultivation, and
micropropagation of superior tree.
the area of cultural technique development is subdivided into root- taking
improvement test of transplanted plants, tree trunk growth and flower bud
control, fruit setting stability control, harvest technique development, and
- 17 -
storing method development. t he area of economical efficiency analysis is
subdivided into present acorn demand and supply analysis, acorn
supply- demand determinant analysis and prospect, and incidental economic
effects of acorn cultivation.
iv. results of research and proposal for application
1. results of research and development
(1) development of acorn as a food
this study was carried out to find that the acorn can be a new commercial
tree by introducing the development of acorn as a food, cultivation methods,
development of the high quality of varieties and economic feasibility study, and
the results are as follows.
1) peeling method of acorn
the heat treatment above 300
? showed positive effect but it needed the
mechanical instrument to adjust the heating time and temperature, whereas the
heat treatment between 100 to 200? showed negative by decreasing the quality
of product. 10% naoh lye solution at 80? for 30 seconds was found to be
the most suitable for peeling the acorns.
2) physical and chemical properties of acorn
q. acetsina, q.variabilis and q. serrata showed in the order of weight and
- 18 -
edible portion of q.variabilis, q. serrata and q. acetsina showed 84%, 78% and
75% respectively. the contents of moisture, crude lipid and crude fiber in q.
were 12.7%, 4.2% and 3.5% respectively. the content of crude ash in
q. serrata was 2.3% and the crude protein content in q.variabilis was 7.4%.
the 14 out of 46 volatile compounds of acorn were identified. among them,
palmitic acid content showed the highest as 54%, and showed dioctyl adipate,
methyl- 9, 12- octadecadienoate, methyl- 9- octadecenoate, phenyl ethyl alcohol in
the order of the amount of content.
3) kneading characteristics and acorn food
the moisture content of the acorn paste added condition was higher than
that of non added condition and the more the condition added the more the
the sensory evaluation of acorn castella(sponge cake mixed with acorn
flour) for taste and flavor test showed the highest in 20% addition of
conditioner, for color test 15%, for texture 10% respectively.
the sensory evaluation of acorn noodle for taste showed the highest in
20%- 30% treatment of acorn flour and those for flavor, color and texture
showed the highest value in 20% of each treatment. in the taste evaluation of
acorn drink, 5% of acorn showed highest, but it gave bitter taste due to the
tannin content which remained in the extract. in the acorn cookies taste, 10%
of acorn flour showed the highest. more than 10% of acorn gave less taste
than that of nut cookies which are commonly used. in the sensory test for
taste of woodong, 20% of acorn flour showed the highest taste.
the taste and color of the product evaluated as good, whereas the texture of
- 19 -
the product gave no significant effect.
the cohesiveness and overall quality of acorn bread showed the highest in
30% addition of acorn flour. tendency of the bread had no difference among
the treatments and neither had between and in its favorite degree.
the hardness, brittleness and springiness of acorn paste(mook) made from
more than that of.
the favorite degree of mook made from had the most value among the
4) preservation and function of acorn foods
temperature(room temperature and cold treatment) and time(0, 1,3,5,7days)
effects on the processed foods of acorn were carried out to find the proper
condition of preservation. weather the acorn flours were added or not, there
was no significant difference on treatments of temperature and time for noodle
foods. after 30 days preservation, the noodle preserved at room temperature
showed deterioration effect.
acorn castella preserved under cold condition has shown its effect, whereas
the food preserved at room temperature and without addition of acorn flour
appeared mold growth after 3 days storage, but the treatment of acorn flour
showed moldy after 5 days. in the dduk foods, the acorn application delayed
mold appearances as 2 days compared to those of castella food itself.
on the other hand, to find the functional properties of acorn food the various
solvents were introduced. among the solvents, water extracted the most as
27.5% compare to those of methanols and ethanol. by applying vacuum
concentration, the extraction was varied as 4.7% by water, 3.9% by methanols
- 20 -
and 3.4% by ethanol.
to find the antioxidative effect lard oil was treated. the effect of antioxidation
up to 3 days storage showed significant differences between the food with and
without acorn flour. whereas there was no significant effect on after 6 days'
antibiotics effect was not shown to 4 varieties of microorganisms, e.coli, b.
subtilis, b.typimurium and s.aureus. the candy added acorn extracts for
making the functional food proved no significant effects due to higher cost to
produce than that of other commercial candy. therefore it is required to
extract and add the substances which represented the acorn's characteristics
like flavor, taste etc..
(2) superior variety breeding
1) a study of distribution and vegetation structure
this sections were summarized to analysis plant community in mt.
bakwoon and mt. chiri area. the structure of plant community of mt.
bakwoon and mt. chiri were set up 95 plots and 89 plots by clumped
sampling method, respectively. by the dca ordination, mt. bakwoon
are composed of
pinus densiflora, quercus variabilis, and q. serrata
community, it is similarity index between quercus variabilis and mixed
stands of broad leaved trees were more than 55%. mt.chiri was pinus
densiflora, quercus variabilis- q. serrata, carpinus laxiflora, q.
and cornus controversa - q. mongolica community, it is
similarity index between coniferous and mixed stands of broad leaved
- 21 -
trees were less than 20%.
2) a study of genetic resources and individual selection
genetic resources improvement is accomplished by having a population
of trees with genetic difference and selecting the genetically desirable
trees. t he survey sites to where the mother trees were growing in
natural forests and the where their genetic characteristics were developed
through natural selection. according to the standard list of elite tree
collection were selected 6 species 48 individual of fagaceae which is 21
individual 1st year and 27 individual 2nd year. t he h- 6, h- 7 and h- 14
were extension of shoot length. the weight of acorn were heavier s- 2,
s- 9 and acorn type were ovate and oblong. the average weight of most
individual were 3.1g and average diameter of acorn was 20.4 mm. t he
period of fruit maturity was h- 4, js- 1 and g- 1 were precocious species,
h - 10, s- 7 and wh- 1 were intermediate ripening species, h- 7, s- 3 and
ss- 0 were late ripening species.
3) a study of vegetative reproduction and analysis of superior tree
superior tree of
quercus which producing a high quantity of acorn
starch was from natural forest and its mass propagation method. by
grafting and cutting was studied. survival ratio in grafting of
acutissima, q. aliena and q. dentata are 75%, 58%, 51% respectively.
rooting ratio in cutting of sprout q. acutissima, q. aliena and q.
dentata are 61%, 58%, and 48% respectively. rooting ratio in cutting of
This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?