In Roman times, a criminal charge meant presenting the case before a group of publicindividuals in the forum. Both the person accused of the crime and the accuser would givespeeches based on their sides of the story. The individual with the best argument and deliverywould determine the outcome of the case. This origin is the source of the two modern usages of the word
– as a form of legal evidence and as a category of public presentation.In modern use, the term "forensics" in the place of "forensic science" can be considered correctas the term "forensic" is effectively asynonymfor "legal" or "related to courts". However theterm is now so closely associated with the scientific field that many dictionaries include themeaning that equates the word "forensics" with "forensic science".
Theancient worldlacked standardized forensic practices, which aided criminals in escaping punishment. Criminal investigations and trials relied on forcedconfessionsand witnesstestimony. However ancient sources contain several accounts of techniques that foreshadow theconcepts of forensic science that is developed centuries later, such as the"Eureka" legendtold of Archimedes(287–212 BC).
The account about Archimedes tells of how he invented a methodfor determining the volume of an object with an irregular shape. According toVitruvius, avotivecrownfor a temple had been made for King Hiero II, who had supplied the puregoldto be used,
and Archimedes was asked to determine whether somesilver had been substituted by thedishonest goldsmith.
Archimedes had to solve the problem without damaging the crown, so hecould not melt it down into a regularly shaped body in order to calculate itsdensity.While taking a bath, he noticed that the level of the water in the tub rose as he got in, andrealized that this effect could be used to determine thevolumeof the crown. For practical purposes water is incompressible,
so the submerged crown would displace an amount of water equal to its own volume. By dividing the mass of the crown by the volume of water displaced,the density of the crown could be obtained. This density would be lower than that of gold if cheaper and less dense metals had been added. Archimedes then took to the streets naked, soexcited by his discovery that he had forgotten to dress, crying "Eureka!" (Greek : "ερηκα!,"
meaning "I have found it!"). The test was conducted successfully, proving that silver had indeed been mixed in.
, 1186–1249) in 1248. In one of the accounts, the case of a person murdered with a sickle was solved by a death investigator who instructed everyone to bring his sickle to one location. (He realized it was a sickle by testing various blades on ananimal carcass and comparing the wound.) Flies, attracted by the smell of blood, eventuallygathered on a single sickle. In light of this, the murderer confessed. The book also offered adviceon how to distinguish between adrowning(water in thelungs
) andstrangulation(broken neck cartilage), along with other evidence from examining corpses on determining if a death wascaused by murder, suicide or an accident.
In the 16th-century Europe medical practitioners in army and university settings began to gather information on cause and manner of death.Ambroise Paré,a French armysurgeon,systematically studied the effects of violent death on internal organs. TwoItaliansurgeons,Fortunato FidelisandPaolo Zacchia, laid the foundation of modern pathology by studyingchanges that occurred in the structure of the body as the result of disease. In the late 18thcentury, writings on these topics began to appear. These included
by the German medical expertJohann Peter Franck .In 1773 a Swedish chemistCarl Wilhelm Scheeledevised a way of detecting arsenous oxide,simplearsenic, in corpses, although only in large quantities. This investigation was expanded, in1806, by German chemistValentin Ross, who learned to detect the poison in the walls of avictim's stomach, and by English chemistJames Marsh, who used chemical processes to confirmarsenic as the cause of death in an 1836 murder trial.Two early examples of English forensic science in individual legal proceedings demonstrate theincreasing use of logicand procedurein criminal investigations. In 1784, inLancaster , JohnToms was tried and convicted for murdering Edward Culshaw with a pistol. When the dead bodyof Culshaw was examined, a pistol wad (crushed paper used to secure powder and balls in the
muzzle) found in his head wound matched perfectly with a torn newspaper found in Toms' pocket. InWarwick in 1816, a farm labourer was tried and convicted of the murder of a youngmaidservant. She had been drowned in a shallow pool and bore the marks of violent assault. The police found footprints and an impression from corduroy cloth with a sewn patch in the dampearth near the pool. There were also scattered grains of wheatand chaff. The breeches of a farmlabourer who had been threshing wheat nearby were examined and corresponded exactly to theimpression in the earth near the pool.