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CH10

CH10

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Published by api-3714448

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Published by: api-3714448 on Oct 18, 2008
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03/18/2014

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Ch\u00e6\u00e5ng 10:
T\u00c6\u00db \u00c2\u00c4\u00dc NG HO\u00cc A \u00c2\u00c4\u00d6 NG B\u00c4\u00dc
I. CA\u00cf C PH\u00c6\u00c5NG PHA\u00cf P HO\u00cc A \u00c2\u00c4\u00d6 NG B\u00c4\u00dc :
Vi\u00e3\u00fb c \u00e2o\u00efng ca\u00efc ma\u00efy pha\u00eft \u00e2i\u00e3\u00fb n va\u00ec o la\u00ec m vi\u00e3\u00fb c trong ma\u00fb ng co\u00ef th\u00e3\u00f8 ta\u00fb o n\u00e3n do\u00ec ng c\u00e1n
b\u00e0\u00f2 ng l\u00e5\u00efn va\u00ec dao \u00e2\u00e4\u00fc ng ke\u00efo da\u00ec i. T\u00e7nh tra\u00fb ng kh\u00e4ng mong mu\u00e4\u00fan \u00e2o\u00ef xa\u00ed y ra la\u00ec do:
* T\u00e4\u00fac \u00e2\u00e4\u00fc go\u00efc quay cu\u00ed a ma\u00efy pha\u00eft \u00e2\u00e6\u00e5\u00fc c \u00e2o\u00efng va\u00ec o kha\u00efc v\u00e5\u00efi t\u00e4\u00fac \u00e2\u00e4\u00fc go\u00efc quay \u00e2\u00e4\u00f6 ng b\u00e4\u00fc
cu\u00ed a ca\u00efc ma\u00efy pha\u00eft \u00e2ang la\u00ec m vi\u00e3\u00fb c trong h\u00e3\u00fb th\u00e4\u00fang \u00e2i\u00e3\u00fb n.
* \u00c2i\u00e3\u00fb n a\u00efp \u00e5\u00ed \u00e2\u00e1\u00f6 u c\u00e6\u00fb c cu\u00ed a ma\u00efy pha\u00eft \u00e2\u00e6\u00e5\u00fc c \u00e2o\u00efng va\u00ec o kha\u00efc v\u00e5\u00efi \u00e2i\u00e3\u00fb n a\u00efp tr\u00e3n thanh go\u00efp
cu\u00ed a nha\u00ec ma\u00efy \u00e2i\u00e3\u00fb n.
\u00c2i\u00e3\u00f6 u ki\u00e3\u00fb n \u00e2\u00e3\u00f8 ca\u00efc ma\u00efy pha\u00eft \u00e2i\u00e3\u00fb n \u00e2\u00e4\u00f6 ng b\u00e4\u00fc co\u00ef th\u00e3\u00f8 la\u00ec m vi\u00e3\u00fb c song song v\u00e5\u00efi nhau trong

h\u00e3\u00fb th\u00e4\u00fang \u00e2i\u00e3\u00fb n la\u00ec :
- r\u00e4to cu\u00ed a ca\u00efc ma\u00efy pha\u00eft pha\u00ed i quay v\u00e5\u00efi m\u00e4\u00fc t t\u00e4\u00fac \u00e2\u00e4\u00fc g\u00e1\u00f6 n nh\u00e6 nhau.
- \u00e2i\u00e3\u00fb n a\u00efp \u00e5\u00ed \u00e2\u00e1\u00f6 u c\u00e6\u00fb c ca\u00efc ma\u00efy pha\u00eft pha\u00ed i g\u00e1\u00f6 n b\u00e0\u00f2 ng nhau.
- go\u00efc l\u00e3\u00fb ch pha t\u00e6\u00e5ng \u00e2\u00e4\u00fai gi\u00e6\u00eea ca\u00efc r\u00e4to kh\u00e4ng \u00e2\u00e6\u00e5\u00fc c v\u00e6\u00e5\u00fc t qua\u00ef gi\u00e5\u00efi ha\u00fb n cho phe\u00efp.

V\u00e7 v\u00e1\u00fb y \u00e2\u00e3\u00f8 \u00e2o\u00efng ma\u00efy pha\u00eft \u00e2i\u00e3\u00fb n \u00e2\u00e4\u00f6 ng b\u00e4\u00fc va\u00ec o la\u00ec m vi\u00e3\u00fb c song song v\u00e5\u00efi ca\u00efc ma\u00efy pha\u00eft
kha\u00efc cu\u00eda nha\u00ec ma\u00efy \u00e2i\u00e3\u00fb n hay h\u00e3\u00fb th\u00e4\u00fang, c\u00e1\u00f6 n pha\u00edi s\u00e5 b\u00e4\u00fc la\u00ec m cho chu\u00efng \u00e2\u00e4\u00f6 ng b\u00e4\u00fc v\u00e5\u00efi nhau.

HO\u00ccA \u00c2\u00c4\u00d6NG B\u00c4\u00dc la\u00ec qua\u00ef tr\u00e7nh la\u00ec m c\u00e1n b\u00e0\u00f2ng t\u00e4\u00fac \u00e2\u00e4\u00fc go\u00efc quay va\u00ec \u00e2i\u00e3\u00fb n a\u00efp cu\u00eda ma\u00efy pha\u00eft \u00e2\u00e6\u00e5\u00fc c \u00e2o\u00efng va\u00ec o v\u00e5\u00efi t\u00e4\u00fac \u00e2\u00e4\u00fc go\u00efc quay cu\u00eda ca\u00efc ma\u00efy pha\u00eft \u00e2ang la\u00ec m vi\u00e3\u00fb c va\u00ec \u00e2i\u00e3\u00fb n a\u00efp tr\u00e3n thanh go\u00efp nha\u00ec ma\u00efy \u00e2i\u00e3\u00fb n, cu\u00eeng nh\u00e6 cho\u00fc n th\u00e5\u00ec i \u00e2i\u00e3\u00f8m th\u00each h\u00e5\u00fc p \u00e2\u00e6a xung \u00e2i \u00e2o\u00efng ma\u00efy c\u00e0\u00f5t cu\u00eda ma\u00efy pha\u00eft. Co\u00ef 2 ph\u00e6\u00e5ng pha\u00efp ho\u00ec a \u00e2\u00e4\u00f6 ng b\u00e4\u00fc : ho\u00ec a \u00e2\u00e4\u00f6 ng b\u00e4\u00fc ch\u00eanh xa\u00efc va\u00ec ho\u00ec a t\u00e6\u00fb \u00e2\u00e4\u00f6 ng b\u00e4\u00fc .

\u2666Ho\u00ec a \u00e2\u00e4\u00f6ng b\u00e4\u00fc ch\u00eanh xa\u00efc :
Khi \u00e2o\u00efng ma\u00efy pha\u00eft b\u00e0\u00f2 ng ph\u00e6\u00e5ng pha\u00efp ho\u00ec a ch\u00eanh xa\u00efc c\u00e1\u00f6 n pha\u00ed i th\u00e6\u00fb c hi\u00e3\u00fb n nh\u00e6\u00eeng c\u00e4ng
vi\u00e3\u00fb c sau :
- San b\u00e0\u00f2 ng v\u00e3\u00f6 tr\u00eb s\u00e4\u00fa cu\u00ed a \u00e2i\u00e3\u00fb n a\u00efp ma\u00efy pha\u00eft \u00e2\u00e6\u00e5\u00fc c \u00e2o\u00efng va\u00ec o UF va\u00ec \u00e2i\u00e3\u00fb n a\u00efp ma\u00fb ng UHT
(\u23d0UF\u23d0 \u2248\u23d0UHT\u23d0)
- San b\u00e0\u00f2 ng t\u00e4\u00fac \u00e2\u00e4\u00fc go\u00efc quay cu\u00ed a ma\u00efy pha\u00eft \u00e2\u00e6\u00e5\u00fc c \u00e2o\u00efng va\u00ec o\u03c9F va\u00ec t\u00e4\u00fac \u00e2\u00e4\u00fc go\u00efc quay cu\u00ed a
ca\u00efc ma\u00efy pha\u00eft trong h\u00e3\u00fb th\u00e4\u00fang\u03c9HT(\u03c9F\u2248 \u03c9HT).
- La\u00ec m cho go\u00efc pha cu\u00ed a ca\u00efc ve\u00efct\u00e5 \u00e2i\u00e3\u00fb n a\u00efp ma\u00efy pha\u00eft va\u00ec \u00e2i\u00e3\u00fb n a\u00efp ma\u00fb ng tru\u00ec ng nhau va\u00ec o
lu\u00efc \u00e2o\u00efng ma\u00efy c\u00e0\u00f5t (Go\u00efc l\u00e3\u00fb ch pha gi\u00e6\u00eea ca\u00efc ve\u00efct\u00e5 \u00e2i\u00e3\u00fb n a\u00efp ma\u00efy pha\u00eft va\u00ec \u00e2i\u00e3\u00fb n a\u00efp ma\u00fb ng\u03b4\u2248 0)
Nh\u00e6 v\u00e1\u00fb y tr\u00e7nh t\u00e6\u00fb th\u00e6\u00fb c hi\u00e3\u00fb n ho\u00ec a \u00e2\u00e4\u00f6 ng b\u00e4\u00fc ch\u00eanh xa\u00efc nh\u00e6 sau: Tr\u00e6\u00e5\u00efc khi \u00e2o\u00efng m\u00e4\u00fc t ma\u00efy

pha\u00eft va\u00ec o la\u00ec m vi\u00e3\u00fb c song song v\u00e5\u00efi ca\u00efc ma\u00efy pha\u00eft kha\u00efc th\u00e7 ma\u00efy pha\u00eft \u00e2o\u00ef pha\u00edi \u00e2\u00e6\u00e5\u00fc c k\u00each t\u00e6\u00ec tr\u00e6\u00e5\u00efc, khi t\u00e4\u00fac \u00e2\u00e4\u00fc quay va\u00ec \u00e2i\u00e3\u00fb n a\u00efp cu\u00eda ma\u00efy pha\u00eft \u00e2o\u00ef x\u00e1\u00fap x\u00e8 v\u00e5\u00efi t\u00e4\u00fac \u00e2\u00e4\u00fc quay va\u00ec \u00e2i\u00e3\u00fb n a\u00efp cu\u00eda ca\u00efc ma\u00efy pha\u00eft kha\u00efc c\u00e1\u00f6n cho\u00fc n th\u00e5\u00ec i \u00e2i\u00e3\u00f8m thu\u00e1\u00fb n l\u00e5\u00fc i \u00e2\u00e3\u00f8 \u00e2o\u00efng ma\u00efy pha\u00eft sao cho lu\u00efc \u00e2o\u00ef \u00e2\u00e4\u00fc l\u00e3\u00fb ch \u00e2i\u00e3\u00fb n a\u00efp gi\u00e6\u00eea ca\u00efc ma\u00efy pha\u00eft g\u00e1\u00f6n b\u00e0\u00f2ng kh\u00e4ng, nh\u00e5\u00ec v\u00e1\u00fb y do\u00ec ng c\u00e1n b\u00e0\u00f2ng lu\u00efc \u00e2o\u00efng ma\u00efy se\u00ee nho\u00ed nh\u00e1\u00fat.\u2666Ho\u00ec a t\u00e6\u00fb \u00e2\u00e4\u00f6ng b\u00e4\u00fc :

Khi \u00e2o\u00efng ma\u00efy pha\u00eft b\u00e0\u00f2 ng ph\u00e6\u00e5ng pha\u00efp t\u00e6\u00fb \u00e2\u00e4\u00f6 ng b\u00e4\u00fc pha\u00ed i tu\u00e1n theo nh\u00e6\u00eeng \u00e2i\u00e3\u00f6 u ki\u00e3\u00fb n
sau :- Ma\u00efy pha\u00eft kh\u00e4ng \u00e2\u00e6\u00e5\u00fc c k\u00each t\u00e6\u00ec (k\u00each t\u00e6\u00ec cu\u00ed a ma\u00efy pha\u00eft \u00e2a\u00ee \u00e2\u00e6\u00e5\u00fc c c\u00e0\u00f5t ra b\u00e5\u00ed i aptomat
di\u00e3\u00fbt t\u00e6\u00ec ).
144
- T\u00e4\u00fac \u00e2\u00e4\u00fc go\u00efc quay cu\u00ed a ma\u00efy pha\u00eft \u00e2o\u00efng va\u00ec o pha\u00ed i g\u00e1\u00f6 n b\u00e0\u00f2 ng t\u00e4\u00fac \u00e2\u00e4\u00fc go\u00efc quay cu\u00ed a ca\u00efc
ma\u00efy pha\u00eft \u00e2ang la\u00ec m vi\u00e3\u00fb c trong h\u00e3\u00fb th\u00e4\u00fang.
Tr\u00e7nh t\u00e6\u00fb th\u00e6\u00fb c hi\u00e3\u00fb n: Tr\u00e6\u00e5\u00efc khi \u00e2o\u00efng m\u00e4\u00fc t ma\u00efy pha\u00eft va\u00ec o la\u00ec m vi\u00e3\u00fb c song song v\u00e5\u00efi ca\u00efc

ma\u00efy pha\u00eft kha\u00efc th\u00e7 ma\u00efy pha\u00eft \u00e2o\u00ef ch\u00e6a \u00e2\u00e6\u00e5\u00fc c k\u00each t\u00e6\u00ec , khi t\u00e4\u00fac \u00e2\u00e4\u00fc quay cu\u00eda ma\u00efy pha\u00eft \u00e2o\u00ef x\u00e1\u00fap x\u00e8 v\u00e5\u00efi t\u00e4\u00fac \u00e2\u00e4\u00fc quay cu\u00eda ca\u00efc ma\u00efy pha\u00eft kha\u00efc th\u00e7 ma\u00efy pha\u00eft \u00e2o\u00ef \u00e2\u00e6\u00e5\u00fc c \u00e2o\u00efng va\u00ec o, ngay sau \u00e2o\u00ef do\u00ec ng k\u00each t\u00e6\u00ec se\u00ee \u00e2\u00e6\u00e5\u00fc c \u00e2\u00e6a va\u00ec o r\u00e4to va\u00ec ma\u00efy pha\u00eft se\u00ee \u00e2\u00e6\u00e5c ke\u00efo va\u00ec o la\u00ec m vi\u00e3\u00fb c \u00e2\u00e4\u00f6ng b\u00e4\u00fc .

II. PH\u00c6\u00c5NG PHA\u00cf P HO\u00cc A \u00c2\u00c4\u00d6 NG B\u00c4\u00dc CH\u00caNH XA\u00cf C:
II.1. \u00c2i\u00e3\u00fb n a\u00ef p pha\u00ef ch va\u00ec do\u00ec ng c\u00e1n b\u00e0\u00f2 ng:
II.1.1. \u00c2i\u00e3\u00fb n a\u00efp pha\u00efch:
Gia\u00ed thi\u00e3\u00fat \u00e2i\u00e3\u00fb n a\u00efp \u00e5\u00ed \u00e2\u00e1\u00f6 u c\u00e6\u00fb c cu\u00ed a ma\u00efy pha\u00eft va\u00ec \u00e5\u00ed thanh go\u00efp cu\u00ed a h\u00e3\u00fb th\u00e4\u00fang la\u00ec :
uF = U sin\u03c9Ft
va\u00ec
uHT = U sin\u03c9HTt
\u00c2i\u00e3\u00fb n a\u00efp pha\u00efch US =\u2206U la\u00ec hi\u00e3\u00fb u h\u00e7nh ho\u00fc c cu\u00ed a \u00e2i\u00e3\u00fb n a\u00efp ma\u00efy pha\u00eft c\u00e1\u00f6 n ho\u00ec a va\u00ec \u00e2i\u00e3\u00fb n a\u00efp
h\u00e3\u00fb th\u00e4\u00fang, \u00e2i\u00e3\u00fb n a\u00efp pha\u00efch xu\u00e1\u00fat hi\u00e3\u00fb n khi t\u00e4\u00fac \u00e2\u00e4\u00fc go\u00efc quay cu\u00eda ca\u00efc vect\u00e5 \u00e2i\u00e3\u00fb n a\u00efp na\u00ec y kha\u00efc
nhau (h\u00e7nh 10.1a).
u u u
U
t
t U
t
S
F
HT
F
HT
F
HT
S
tb
= \u2212
=
t
\u2212
+
=
2
2
2
2
2
sin
.cos
sin .cos .
\u03c9 \u03c9
\u03c9 \u03c9
\u03c9
\u03c9
trong \u00e2o\u00ef :
\u03c9S= \u03c9F- \u03c9HT : t\u00e4\u00fac \u00e2\u00e4\u00fc go\u00efc tr\u00e6\u00e5\u00fc t << \u03c9\u00e2b
\u03c9tb= ( \u03c9F+ \u03c9HT)/ 2 : t\u00e4\u00fac \u00e2\u00e4\u00fc go\u00efc trung b\u00e7nh \u2248 \u03c9\u00e2b
\u00c2\u00e0\u00fbt\u03b4 =\u03c9S.t : go\u00efc l\u00e3\u00fbch pha gi\u00e6\u00eea ca\u00efc ve\u00efct\u00e5 \u00e2i\u00e3\u00fbn a\u00efp.
Khi cos\u03c9tb.t = 1 th\u00e7:
uS= US= 2
2
2
U
t
HT
sin
2t
\u03b4
\u03c9 \u03c9
\u03c9
= 2Usin
= 2Usin
F
S
\u2212
\u22c5
(10.1)
\u00c2\u00e6\u00e5\u00ec ng cong US = 2Usin(\u03b4/2) la\u00ec \u00e2\u00e6\u00e5\u00ec ng bao ca\u00efc gia\u00ef tr\u00eb bi\u00e3n \u00e2\u00e4\u00fc cu\u00ed a \u00e2i\u00e3\u00fb n a\u00efp pha\u00efch,
bi\u00e3\u00fan thi\u00e3n theo t\u00e1\u00f6 n s\u00e4\u00fa pha\u00efch fS:
f
f
T
S
S
F
HT
F
HT
S
= =
f
\u2212
=\u2212 =
\u03c9 \u03c9\u03c9
2
2
1
\u03a0
\u03a0
trong \u00e2o\u00ef: TS la\u00ec chu ky\u00ec tr\u00e6\u00e5\u00fc t, t\u00e6\u00efc la\u00ec th\u00e5\u00ec i gian cu\u00eda m\u00e4\u00fc t chu ky\u00ec thay \u00e2\u00e4\u00f8i bi\u00e3n \u00e2\u00e4\u00fc \u00e2i\u00e3\u00fb n a\u00efp
pha\u00efch.
145
H\u00e7nh 10.1: \u00c2i\u00e3\u00fb n a\u00efp pha\u00efch
a) \u00e2\u00e4\u00f6 th\u00eb vect\u00e5 b) s\u00e6\u00fb thay \u00e2\u00e4\u00f8i tr\u00eb s\u00e4\u00fa t\u00e6\u00efc th\u00e5\u00ec i cu\u00eda \u00e2i\u00e3\u00fb n a\u00efp pha\u00efch
c) s\u00e6\u00fb thay \u00e2\u00e4\u00f8i bi\u00e3n \u00e2\u00e4\u00fc cu\u00eda \u00e2i\u00e3\u00fb n a\u00efp pha\u00efch
Theo do\u00eei s\u00e6\u00fb bi\u00e3\u00fan thi\u00e3n cu\u00ed a \u00e2i\u00e3\u00fb n a\u00efp pha\u00efch (h\u00e7nh 10.1), ta nh\u00e1\u00fb n th\u00e1\u00fay:

* TS ca\u00ec ng l\u00e5\u00efn th\u00e7 t\u00e4\u00fac \u00e2\u00e4\u00fc t\u00e6\u00e5ng \u00e2\u00e4\u00fai gi\u00e6\u00eea hai ma\u00efy pha\u00eft ca\u00ec ng nho\u00ed . Tr\u00e3n h\u00e7nh 10.1c la\u00ec 2 chu ky\u00ec thay \u00e2\u00e4\u00f8i bi\u00e3n \u00e2\u00e4\u00fc \u00e2i\u00e3\u00fb n a\u00efp pha\u00efch \u00e6\u00efng v\u00e5\u00efi 2 gia\u00ef tr\u00eb t\u00e4\u00fac \u00e2\u00e4\u00fc go\u00efc tr\u00e6\u00e5\u00fc t\u03c9S1va\u00ec\u03c9S2 , trong \u00e2o\u00ef\u03c9S1>\u03c9S2.

* Lu\u00efc US = 0 la\u00ec th\u00e5\u00ec i \u00e2i\u00e3\u00f8m hai vect\u00e5 \u00e2i\u00e3\u00fb n a\u00efp uF va\u00ec uHT ch\u00e1\u00fb p nhau r\u00e1\u00fat thu\u00e1\u00fb n l\u00e5\u00fc i \u00e2\u00e3\u00f8
\u00e2o\u00efng ma\u00efy.
II.1.2. Do\u00ec ng c\u00e1n b\u00e0\u00f2ng:
Do\u00ecng c\u00e1n b\u00e0\u00f2ng la\u00ec do\u00ec ng cha\u00fb y vo\u00ec ng qua ca\u00efc ma\u00efy pha\u00eft la\u00ec m vi\u00e3\u00fb c song song v\u00e5\u00efi nhau
khi vect\u00e5 a\u00efp cu\u00ed a chu\u00efng kh\u00e4ng b\u00e0\u00f2 ng nhau.
N\u00e3\u00fau ho\u00ec a \u00e2\u00e4\u00f6 ng b\u00e4\u00fc hai ma\u00efy pha\u00eft va\u00ec khi s\u00e6\u00efc \u00e2i\u00e3\u00fb n \u00e2\u00e4\u00fc ng cu\u00ed a chu\u00efng b\u00e0\u00f2 ng nhau (E1= E2
= E\u201do) th\u00e7 theo s\u00e5 \u00e2\u00e4\u00f6 thay th\u00e3\u00fa h\u00e7nh 10.2, do\u00ec ng c\u00e1n b\u00e0\u00f2 ng se\u00ee \u00e2\u00e6\u00e5\u00fc c xa\u00efc \u00e2\u00ebnh b\u00e5\u00ed i bi\u00e3\u00f8u th\u00e6\u00efc:
i
E
x x x
cb
d
d
d
"
"
"
"
. , .
sin
=+ +
218 2
2
1
2
12
\u03b4
H\u00e7nh 10.2: S\u00e5 \u00e2\u00e4\u00f6 ma\u00fb ng va\u00ec s\u00e5 \u00e2\u00e4\u00f6 thay th\u00e3\u00fa t\u00eanh toa\u00efn
do\u00ec ng c\u00e1n b\u00e0\u00f2ng khi ho\u00ec a \u00e2\u00e4\u00f6ng b\u00e4\u00fc
Khi\u03b4 = 180o th\u00e7:
i
E
x x x
cb
o
d
d
"
"
"
"
. , .
=+ +
218 2
1
2
12
N\u00e3\u00fau ho\u00ec a ma\u00efy pha\u00eft va\u00ec o h\u00e3\u00fb th\u00e4\u00fang co\u00ef c\u00e4ng su\u00e1\u00fat v\u00e4 cu\u00ec ng l\u00e5\u00efn (t\u00e6\u00efc x\u201dd1+ x12\u22480) th\u00e7:
i
E
x
i
cb
o
d
N
"
"
"
( )
,. .
=
=
18 22
23
(10.2)

trong ca\u00efc bi\u00e3\u00f8u th\u00e6\u00efc tr\u00e3n:
1,8 : h\u00e3\u00fb s\u00e4\u00fa k\u00e3\u00f8 \u00e2\u00e3\u00fan tha\u00ec nh ph\u00e1\u00f6 n kh\u00e4ng chu ky\u00ec trong do\u00ec ng si\u00e3u qua\u00ef \u00e2\u00e4\u00fc .
x\u201dd1, x\u201dd2 : \u00e2i\u00e3\u00fb n kha\u00efng si\u00e3u qua\u00ef \u00e2\u00e4\u00fc cu\u00ed a ca\u00efc ma\u00efy pha\u00eft.
x12 : \u00e2i\u00e3\u00fb n kha\u00efng \u00e2\u00e6\u00e5\u00ec ng d\u00e1y li\u00e3n la\u00fb c gi\u00e6\u00eea hai ma\u00efy pha\u00eft.

iN(3) : do\u00ec ng ng\u00e0\u00f5n ma\u00fb ch 3 pha ta\u00fb i \u00e2\u00e1\u00f6 u c\u00e6\u00fb c ma\u00efy pha\u00eft.

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