HIS SECTION PROVIDES A BRIEF REVIEW of the de\ufb01nitions and fundamental concepts used in the study of linear circuits and systems. We can describe ac ircuitor sy ste m, in a broad sense, as a collection of objects called elements(components, parts,or subsystems) which form an entity governed by certain
A mathematical model describes the behavior of a physical system or device in terms of a set of equations, together with a schematic diagram of the device containing the symbols of its elements, their connections, and numerical values. As an example, a physical electrical system can be represented graphically by a network which includes resistors, inductors, and capacitors, etc. as its components. Such an illustration, together with a set of linear differential equations, is referred to as a model system.
Electrical circuits may be classi\ufb01ed into various categories. Four of the more familiar classi\ufb01cations are (a) linear and nonlinear circuits, (b) time-invariant and time-varying circuits, (c) passive and active circuits, and (d) lumped and distributed circuits. Alinear circuit can be described by a set of linear (differential) equations; otherwise it is a nonlinear circuit. At ime-invar iant circuit or system implies that none of the components of the circuit have parameters that vary with time; otherwise it is at ime-var iant system. If the total energy delivered to a given circuit is nonnegative at any instant of time, the circuit is said to bepassive ; otherwise it isact ive . Finally, if the dimensions of the components of the circuit are small compared to the wavelength of the highest of the signal frequencies applied to the circuit, it is called alumped circuit; otherwise it is referred to as adist r ibutedcircuit.
There are, of course, other ways of classifying circuits. For example, one might wish to classify circuits according to the number of accessible terminals or terminal pairs (ports). Thus, terms such as n-terminal circuit andn-por t are commonly used in circuit theory. Another method of classi\ufb01cation is based on circuit con\ufb01gu- rations (topology),1 which gives rise to such terms as ladders, lattices, bridged-T circuits, etc.
As indicated earlier, although the wordsc ircuitand sy ste m are synonymous and will be used interchangeably throughout the text, the terms circuit theoryand system theory sometimes denote different points of view in the study of circuits or systems. Roughly speaking, circuit theory is mainly concerned with interconnections of components (circuit topology) within a given system, whereas system theory attempts to attain generality by means of abstraction through a generalized (input-output state) model.
One of the goals of this section is to present a uni\ufb01ed treatment on the study of linear circuits and systems. That is, while the study of linear circuits with regard to their topological properties is treated as an important phase of the entire development of the theory, a generality can be attained from such a study.
The subject of circuit theory can be divided into two main parts, namely, analysis and synthesis. In a broad sense,analy sis may be de\ufb01ned as \u201cthe separating of any material or abstract entity [system] into its constituent elements;\u201d on the other hand,sy nthesis is \u201cthe combining of the constituent elements of separate materials or abstract entities into a single or uni\ufb01ed entity [system].\u201d2
It should also be noted that in some network theory texts the wordssy nthesis anddesign might be used interchangeably throughout the entire discussion of the subject. However, the termsy nthesis is generally used to describeanaly t ical procedures that can usually be carried out step by step, whereas the term designincludes practical (design) procedures (such as trial-and-error techniques which are based, to a great extent, on the experience of the designer) as well as analytical methods.