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\u00a9 2000 by CRC Press LLC

Circuits

1 Passive ComponentsM. Pecht, P. Lall, G. Ballou, C. Sankaran, N. Angelopoulos

Resistors \u2022 Capacitors and Inductors \u2022 Transformers \u2022 Electrical Fuses

2 Voltage and Current SourcesR.C. Dorf, Z. Wan, C.R. Paul, J.R. Cogdell

Step, Impulse, Ramp, Sinusoidal, Exponential, and DC Signals \u2022 Ideal and Practical

Sources \u2022 Controlled Sources

3 Linear Circuit AnalysisM.D. Ciletti, J.D. Irwin, A.D. Kraus, N. Balabanian,

T.A. Bickart, S.P. Chan, N.S. Nise

Voltage and Current Laws \u2022 Node and Mesh Analysis \u2022 Network Theorems \u2022 Power and

Energy \u2022 Three-Phase Circuits \u2022 Graph Theory \u2022 Two Port Parameters and Transformations

4 Passive Signal ProcessingW.J. Kerwin

Low-Pass Filter Functions \u2022 Low-Pass Filters \u2022 Filter Design

5 Nonlinear CircuitsJ.L. Hudgins, T.F. Bogart, Jr., K. Mayaram, M.P. Kennedy,

G. Kolumb\u00e1n

Diodes and Recti\ufb01ers \u2022 Limiters \u2022 Distortion \u2022 Communicating with Chaos

6 Laplace TransformR.C. Dorf, Z. Wan, D.E. Johnson

De\ufb01nitions and Properties \u2022 Applications

7 State Variables: Concept and FormulationW.K. Chen

State Equations in Normal Form \u2022 The Concept of State and State Variables and Normal

Tree \u2022 Systematic Procedure in Writing State Equations \u2022 State Equations for Networks Described

by Scalar Differential Equations \u2022 Extension to Time-Varying and Nonlinear Networks

8 The z-TransformR.C. Dorf, Z. Wan

Properties of thez -Transform \u2022 Unilateralz -Transform \u2022z -Transform Inversion \u2022 Sampled Data

9 T-P Equivalent NetworksZ. Wan, R.C. Dorf

Three-Phase Connections \u2022 Wye\u21d4 Delta Transformations

10 Transfer Functions of FiltersR.C. Dorf, Z. Wan

Ideal Filters \u2022 The Ideal Linear-Phase Low-Pass Filter \u2022 Ideal Linear-Phase Bandpass

Filters \u2022 Causal Filters \u2022 Butterworth Filters \u2022 Chebyshev Filters

11 Frequency ResponseP. Neudorfer

Linear Frequency Response Plotting \u2022 Bode Diagrams \u2022 A Comparison of Methods

12 Stability AnalysisF. Szidarovszky, A.T. Bahill

Using the State of the System to Determine Stability \u2022 Lyapunov Stability Theory \u2022 Stability of

Time-Invariant Linear Systems \u2022 BIBO Stability \u2022 Physical Examples

13 Computer Software for Circuit Analysis and DesignJ.G. Rollins, P. Bendix

Analog Circuit Simulation \u2022 Parameter Extraction for Analog Circuit Simulation

\u00a9 2000 by CRC Press LLC

Shu-Park Chan

International Technological University

HIS SECTION PROVIDES A BRIEF REVIEW of the de\ufb01nitions and fundamental concepts used in the study of linear circuits and systems. We can describe ac ircuitor sy ste m, in a broad sense, as a collection of objects called elements(components, parts,or subsystems) which form an entity governed by certain

laws or constraints. Thus, a physical system is an entity made up of physical objects as its elements or

components. A subsystem of a given system can also be considered as a system itself.

A mathematical model describes the behavior of a physical system or device in terms of a set of equations, together with a schematic diagram of the device containing the symbols of its elements, their connections, and numerical values. As an example, a physical electrical system can be represented graphically by a network which includes resistors, inductors, and capacitors, etc. as its components. Such an illustration, together with a set of linear differential equations, is referred to as a model system.

Electrical circuits may be classi\ufb01ed into various categories. Four of the more familiar classi\ufb01cations are (a) linear and nonlinear circuits, (b) time-invariant and time-varying circuits, (c) passive and active circuits, and (d) lumped and distributed circuits. Alinear circuit can be described by a set of linear (differential) equations; otherwise it is a nonlinear circuit. At ime-invar iant circuit or system implies that none of the components of the circuit have parameters that vary with time; otherwise it is at ime-var iant system. If the total energy delivered to a given circuit is nonnegative at any instant of time, the circuit is said to bepassive ; otherwise it isact ive . Finally, if the dimensions of the components of the circuit are small compared to the wavelength of the highest of the signal frequencies applied to the circuit, it is called alumped circuit; otherwise it is referred to as adist r ibutedcircuit.

There are, of course, other ways of classifying circuits. For example, one might wish to classify circuits according to the number of accessible terminals or terminal pairs (ports). Thus, terms such as n-terminal circuit andn-por t are commonly used in circuit theory. Another method of classi\ufb01cation is based on circuit con\ufb01gu- rations (topology),1 which gives rise to such terms as ladders, lattices, bridged-T circuits, etc.

As indicated earlier, although the wordsc ircuitand sy ste m are synonymous and will be used interchangeably throughout the text, the terms circuit theoryand system theory sometimes denote different points of view in the study of circuits or systems. Roughly speaking, circuit theory is mainly concerned with interconnections of components (circuit topology) within a given system, whereas system theory attempts to attain generality by means of abstraction through a generalized (input-output state) model.

One of the goals of this section is to present a uni\ufb01ed treatment on the study of linear circuits and systems. That is, while the study of linear circuits with regard to their topological properties is treated as an important phase of the entire development of the theory, a generality can be attained from such a study.

The subject of circuit theory can be divided into two main parts, namely, analysis and synthesis. In a broad sense,analy sis may be de\ufb01ned as \u201cthe separating of any material or abstract entity [system] into its constituent elements;\u201d on the other hand,sy nthesis is \u201cthe combining of the constituent elements of separate materials or abstract entities into a single or uni\ufb01ed entity [system].\u201d2

It is worth noting that in an analysis problem, the solution is alwaysunique no matter how dif\ufb01cult it may

be, whereas in a synthesis problem there might exist an in\ufb01nite number of solutions or, sometimes, none at all!

It should also be noted that in some network theory texts the wordssy nthesis anddesign might be used interchangeably throughout the entire discussion of the subject. However, the termsy nthesis is generally used to describeanaly t ical procedures that can usually be carried out step by step, whereas the term designincludes practical (design) procedures (such as trial-and-error techniques which are based, to a great extent, on the experience of the designer) as well as analytical methods.

In analyzing the behavior of a given physical system, the \ufb01rst step is to establish a mathematical model. This

model is usually in the form of a set of either differential or difference equations (or a combination of them),

1Circu it top o l o g y o r g r ap h the o r y d e al s w ith the w ay in w hich the circu it e l e me nts are inte rconne cte d . A d e tail e d d is cu s s io n

on elementary applied graph theory is given in Chapter 3.6.

2 The de\ufb01nitions of analysis and synthesis are quoted directly from The Random House Dictionary of the English Language,

2nd ed., Unabridged, New York: Random House, 1987.

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