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Published by: stoleha on Nov 14, 2011
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Chapter 4Directional control valves
Festo Didactic 
Chapter B-4
4.1Configuration and construction
Directional control valves are devices which influence the path taken byan air stream. Normally this involves one or all of the following: openingthe passage of air and directing it to particular air lines, cancelling air signals as required by blocking their passage and/or relieving the air toatmosphere via an exhaust port. The directional control valve ischaracterised by its number of controlled connections or ways, thenumber of switching positions and the method of actuation. However,these symbols do not provide any information about the constructionaldesign, but merely indicate the function of the valve.The
normal position
on valves with existing reset, e.g. spring, refers tothe switching position assumed by the moving parts of the valve, if thevalve is not connected.The
initial position
is the switching position assumed by the movingparts of a valve after the valve has been installed in a system and thesystem pressure has been switched on and possibly also the electricalvoltage, and with which the designated switching program starts.The constructional principle of a directional control valve is an importantfactor as far as the service life, switching time, type of actuation,connection methods and size are concerned.Designs are categorised as follows:
Poppet valves: – Ball seat valve – Disc seat valve
Slide valves : – Longitudinal slide valve (spool valve) – Longitudinal flat slide valve – Plate slide valveWith poppet valves the connections are opened and closed by meansof balls, discs, plates or cones. The valve seats are usually sealedsimply using flexible seals. Seat valves have few parts which aresubject to wear and hence they have a long service life. They areinsensitive to dirt and are robust. The actuating force, however, isrelatively high as it is necessary to overcome the force of the built-inreset spring and the air pressure.In slide valves, the individual connections are linked together or closedby means of spools, flat slide or plate slide valves.
Festo Didactic 
Poppet valvesSlide valves
Chapter B-4
4.22/2-way valve
The 2/2-way valve has two ports and two positions (open, closed). It israrely used except as an on-off valve, since its only function is toenable signal flow through and cannot release the air to atmosphereonce in the closed position in contrast to the 3/2-way vlave. The 2/2-way valve is normally of the ball seat construction.This valve can be operated either manually, mechanically or pneumatically.
4.33/2-way valve
The 3/2-way valve is a signal generating valve, with the characteristicthat a signal on the output side of the valve can be generated and alsocancelled. The 3/2-way valve has three ports and two positions. Theaddition of the exhaust port 3 enables the signal generated via thepassage through the 3/2-way valve to be cancelled. The valve connectsthe output signal 2 to exhaust 3 and thus to atmosphere in the initialposition. A spring forces a ball against the valve seat preventing thecompressed air from flowing from the air connection 1 to the workingline 2.
Festo Didactic 
TP101Fig. 4.13/2-way valve,normally closed,ball seat 
Chapter B-4

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