4.1Configuration and construction
Directional control valves are devices which influence the path taken byan air stream. Normally this involves one or all of the following: openingthe passage of air and directing it to particular air lines, cancelling air signals as required by blocking their passage and/or relieving the air toatmosphere via an exhaust port. The directional control valve ischaracterised by its number of controlled connections or ways, thenumber of switching positions and the method of actuation. However,these symbols do not provide any information about the constructionaldesign, but merely indicate the function of the valve.The
on valves with existing reset, e.g. spring, refers tothe switching position assumed by the moving parts of the valve, if thevalve is not connected.The
is the switching position assumed by the movingparts of a valve after the valve has been installed in a system and thesystem pressure has been switched on and possibly also the electricalvoltage, and with which the designated switching program starts.The constructional principle of a directional control valve is an importantfactor as far as the service life, switching time, type of actuation,connection methods and size are concerned.Designs are categorised as follows:
Poppet valves: – Ball seat valve – Disc seat valve
Slide valves : – Longitudinal slide valve (spool valve) – Longitudinal flat slide valve – Plate slide valveWith poppet valves the connections are opened and closed by meansof balls, discs, plates or cones. The valve seats are usually sealedsimply using flexible seals. Seat valves have few parts which aresubject to wear and hence they have a long service life. They areinsensitive to dirt and are robust. The actuating force, however, isrelatively high as it is necessary to overcome the force of the built-inreset spring and the air pressure.In slide valves, the individual connections are linked together or closedby means of spools, flat slide or plate slide valves.
Poppet valvesSlide valves