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Air-Conditioning and Refrigeration Mechanical Engineering Handbook

Air-Conditioning and Refrigeration Mechanical Engineering Handbook

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Wang, S.K.
and Lavan, Z.\u201cAir-Conditioning and Refrigeration\u201d
Mechanical Engineering Handbook
Ed. Frank Kreith
Boca Raton: CRC Press LLC,1999
c
\ue0001999 by CRC Press LLC
9-1
\u00a9 1999 by CRC Press LLC
Air-Conditioning and
Refrigeration
9.1 Introduction......................................................................9-2
Air-conditioning \u2022 Air-Conditioning Systems \u2022 Air-
Conditioning Project Development and System Design
9.2 Psychrometrics...............................................................9-11
Moist Air \u2022 Humidity and Enthalpy \u2022 Moist Volume, Density,
Speci\ufb01c Heat, and Dew Point \u2022 Thermodynamic Wet Bulb
Temperature and Wet Bulb Temperature \u2022 Psychometric Charts
9.3 Air-Conditioning Processes and Cycles........................9-18

Air-Conditioning Processes \u2022 Space Conditioning, Sensible
Cooling, and Sensible Heating Processes \u2022 Humidifying and
Cooling and Dehumidifying Processes \u2022 Air-Conditioning
Cycles and Operating Modes

9.4 Refrigerants and Refrigeration Cycles..........................9-34

Refrigeration and Refrigeration Systems \u2022 Refrigerants,
Cooling Mediums, and Absorbents \u2022 Classi\ufb01cation of
Refrigerants \u2022 Required Properties of Refrigerants \u2022 Ideal
Single-Stage Vapor Compression Cycle \u2022 Coef\ufb01cient of
Performance of Refrigeration Cycle \u2022 Subcooling and
Superheating \u2022 Refrigeration Cycle of Two-Stage Compound

Systems with a Flash Cooler \u2022 Cascade System Characteristics
9.5 Outdoor Design Conditions and Indoor
Design Criteria...............................................................9-48
Outdoor Design Conditions \u2022 Indoor Design Criteria and
Thermal Comfort \u2022 Indoor Temperature, Relative Humidity,
and Air Velocity \u2022 Indoor Air Quality and Outdoor Ventilation
Air Requirements
9.6 Load Calculations..........................................................9-54

Space Loads \u2022 Moisture Transfer in Building Envelope \u2022
Cooling Load Calculation Methodology \u2022 Conduction Heat
Gains \u2022 Internal Heat Gains \u2022 Conversion of Heat Gains into
Cooling Load by TFM \u2022 Heating Load

9.7 Air Handling Units and Packaged Units.......................9-65
Terminals and Air Handling Units \u2022 Packaged Units \u2022 Coils \u2022
Air Filters \u2022 Humidi\ufb01ers
9.8 Refrigeration Components and
Evaporative Coolers.......................................................9-76

Refrigeration Compressors \u2022 Refrigeration Condensers \u2022
Evaporators and Refrigerant Flow Control Devices \u2022
Evaporative Coolers

Shan K. Wang
Individual Consultant
Zalman Lavan
Professor Emeritus, Illinois
Institute of Technology
9-2
Section 9
\u00a9 1999 by CRC Press LLC
9.9 Water Systems................................................................9-87
Types of Water Systems \u2022 Basics \u2022 Water Piping \u2022 Plant-
Building Loop \u2022 Plant-Distribution-Building Loop
9.10 Heating Systems.............................................................9-95
Types of Heating Systems
9.11 Refrigeration Systems..................................................9-103
Classi\ufb01cations of Refrigeration Systems
9.12 Thermal Storage Systems............................................9-114
Thermal Storage Systems and Off-Peak Air-Conditioning
Systems \u2022 Ice-Storage Systems \u2022 Chilled-Water Storage
Systems
9.13 Air System Basics........................................................9-120

Fan-Duct Systems \u2022 System Effect \u2022 Modulation of Air Systems \u2022 Fan Combinations in Air-Handling Units and Packaged Units \u2022 Fan Energy Use \u2022 Year-Round Operation and Economizers \u2022 Outdoor Ventilation Air Supply

9.14 Absorption Systems.....................................................9-130
Double-Effect Direct-Fired Absorption Chillers \u2022 Absorption
Cycles, Parallel-, Series-, and Reverse-Parallel Flow
9.15 Air-Conditioning Systems and Selection.....................9-135

Basics in Classi\ufb01cation \u2022 Individual Systems \u2022 Packaged
Systems \u2022 Central Systems \u2022 Air-Conditioning System
Selection \u2022 Comparison of Various Systems \u2022 Subsystems \u2022
Energy Conservation Recommendations

9.16 Desiccant Dehumidi\ufb01cation and
Air-Conditioning..........................................................9-152

Introduction \u2022 Sorbents and Desiccants \u2022 Dehumidi\ufb01cation \u2022 Liquid Spray Tower \u2022 Solid Packed Tower \u2022 Rotary Desiccant Dehumidi\ufb01ers \u2022 Hybrid Cycles \u2022 Solid Desiccant Air-

Conditioning \u2022 Conclusions
9.1 Introduction
Air-Conditioning
Air-conditioning is a process that simultaneously conditions air; distributes it combined with the outdoor

air to the conditioned space; and at the same time controls and maintains the required space\u2019s temperature, humidity, air movement, air cleanliness, sound level, and pressure differential within predetermined limits for the health and comfort of the occupants, for product processing, or both.

The acronym HVAC&R stands for heating, ventilating, air-conditioning, and refrigerating. The com-
bination of these processes is equivalent to the functions performed by air-conditioning.
Because I-P units are widely used in the HVAC&R industry in the U.S., I-P units are used in this
chapter. A table for converting I-P units to SI units is available in Appendix X of this handbook.
Air-Conditioning Systems

Anair-conditioning or HVAC&R system consists of components and equipment arranged in sequential order to heat or cool, humidify or dehumidify, clean and purify, attenuate objectionable equipment noise, transport the conditioned outdoor air and recirculate air to the conditioned space, and control and maintain an indoor or enclosed environment at optimum energy use.

The types of buildings which the air-conditioning system serves can be classi\ufb01ed as:
\u2022 Institutional buildings, such as hospitals and nursing homes
\u2022 Commercial buildings, such as of\ufb01ces, stores, and shopping centers

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