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medsea_en

medsea_en

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05/09/2014

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State and pressures of the
marine and coastal
Mediterranean environment

Summary
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UNEP
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Cover design and lay-out: Rolf Kuchling, EEA
Legal notice
The contents of this report do not necessarily reflect the official

opinion of the European Communities or other European Communities institutions. Neither the European Environment Agency nor any person or company acting on the behalf of the Agency is responsible for the use that may be made of the information contained in this report.

A great deal of additional information on the European Union is
available on the Internet.
It can be accessed through the Europa server (http://europa.eu.int)
\u00a9EEA, Copenhagen, 1999
Reproduction is authorised provided the source is acknowledged
Printed on recycled and chlorine-free bleached paper
ISBN: 92-9167-187-8
European Environment Agency
Kongens Nytorv 6
DK-1050 Copenhagen K
Denmark
Tel: +45 33 36 71 00
Fax: +45 33 36 71 99
E-mail: eea@eea.eu.int
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Contents
Foreword................................................... 4
Introduction............................................... 8
Scope of the report...................................................... 8
Driving forces and pressures................... 10

Urbanisation............................................................... 11 Tourism........................................................................ 13 Agriculture.................................................................. 14 Fisheries...................................................................... 15 Aquaculture................................................................ 16 Industry....................................................................... 17 Maritime transport...................................................... 18

State and impact..................................... 19

Eutrophication............................................................ 19 Microbial contamination and human health risks....... 20 Land use and coastal erosion..................................... 22 Heavy metals and organochlorine compounds........... 23 Oil pollution...............................................................24 Radioactive contamination.........................................26 Climate change........................................................... 27 Biodiversity and ecosystem changes........................... 29

Responses............................................... 33
The Mediterranean Action Plan.................................. 33
EU programmes.......................................................... 35
Conclusions and recommendations........ 38

State of the Mediterranean Sea.................................. 38 Recommended for measures...................................... 39 Improvement of data availability................................ 41 Mediterranean monitoring.......................................... 43

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