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Table Of Contents

1.1.2.3 Class Chondrihcthyes or Elasmobronchii
1.1.2.4.2.1. Super order Chondrostei
1.1.2.4.2.2. Super order Holostei
1.1.2.4.2.3.Super order Teleostei
1.2 Classification of Prawns
1.3.1SCOPE OF ECOLOGY
1.3.2BASIC CONCEPTS OF ECOLOGY
1.3.3.SUB DIVISIONS
1.3.4. BRANCHES OF ECOLOGY
2.1.1. Shape and size and colouration
2.1.2.1. Cephalothorax
2.1.2.2. Abdomen
2.1.3. External apertures
2.1.4.1. Cephalothoracic sclerites
2.1.4.2. Abdominal sclerites
2.2.1. Head
2.2.2. Trunk
2.2.3. Tail
2.3.1.1.1 Cephalic appendages
2.3.1.1.2. Antennules
2.3.1.1.3. Antennae
2.3.1.1.4. Mandibles
2.3.1.1.6. Maxillae
2.3.1.2.1. First maxillipedes
2.3.1.2.3. Third maxillipedes
2.3.1.2.4. Walking legs
2.3.1.3.1. Typical abdominal appendages
2.3.1.3.3. Second abdominal appendages of male
2.3.1.3.4. Uropods
2.4.1.1.1. Protocercal tail
2.4.1.1.2. Protoheterocercal
2.4.1.1.3. Heterocercal
2.4.1.1.4. Diphycercal
2.4.1.1.5. Homocercal
2.4.1.1.6. Isocercal
2.4.1.1.7. Gephyrocercal
2.4.1.1.8. Hypocercal
2.4.2.1. Paired fins
3.1.1. Factors affecting growth rate
3.1.2. Regulation of growth
3.1.3.1. Rearing the fish in a controlled environment
3.1.3.2. Tagging
3.1.3.3. Length frequency distribution method
3.1.3.4. Rings or annuli on hard substances
3.1.3.5. Radio-carbon uptake method
3.2.1.1.1. The moult cycle
3.2.1.1.2. Hormonal control of moulting
3.2.1.2. Nutrition
3.2.2.1. Temperature
3.2.2.2. Dissolved oxygen
4.1.1.1. Cranium
4.1.1.2. Visceral skeleton
4.1.1.3.1. Amphistylic jaw suspension
4.1.1.3.2. Hyostylic jaw suspension
4.1.1.3.3. Autostylic jaw suspension
4.1.1.3.4. Holostylic jaw Suspension
4.1.2. Vertebral column
4.2. Appendicular skeleton
4.3.1. Structure of Skin
4.3.2. Functions
4.4.1.1.1. Cosmoid scale
4.4.1.1.2. Ganoid scale
4.4.1.1.3.1. Development of placoid scale
4.5.1.1 Melanophores:
4.5.1.2. Iridophores :
4.5.1.3 Xanthrophores and erythrophores :
4.5.1.4 Mixed Colouration in fishes :
4.5.2 Colour change in fishes :
4.5.3 Significance of Colouration :
5.1.1.1. Mouth
5.1.1.2.1. Teeth
5.1.1.2.2 Tongue
5.1.1.3. Oesophagus
5.1.1.4. Stomach
5.1.1.5. Intestine
5.1.1.6. Pyloric caeca
5.1.1.8.1. Serosa
5.1.1.8.2. Muscle layer
5.1.2.1. Liver
5.1.2.2. Pancreas
5.1.2.3. Gland in digestive tract
5.1.3. Food and feeding habits
5.1.4.1. Mouth and Jaws
5.1.4.2. Lips
5.1.4.4. Gill Rakers
5.1.4.5. Barbels and the taste buds
5.1.4.6. Stomach
5.1.4.7. Intestine
5.1.5.2. Digestion of carbohydrates
5.1.5.3. Fat digestion
5.1.5.4. Gastrointestinal hormone
5.1.5.5. Absorption
5.2.1.1. Mouth
5.2.1.2. Buccal cavity
5.2.1.3. Oesophagus
5.2.1.4.1. Cardiac stomach
5.2.1.4.2. Pyloric stomach
5.2.1.6. Hindgut
5.2.2. Hepatopancreas
5.2.3. Food and feeding
5.2.4. Digestion and absorption
5.3. Carbohydrate metabolism
6.1.1. Holobranch
6.1.2. Pseudobranch
6.2.1. Gill arch
6.2.3. Secondary lamellae
6.2.5. Gill epithelium and branchial glands
6.2.6. Vascular supply of a teleost gill
6.3. Respiratory process
6.5.1. Skin as a respiratory organ
6.5.2. Buccopharyngeal epithelium
6.5.3. Phayngeal diverticulum
6.5.4. Opercular chamber modified for aerial respiration
6.5.5.1. Heteropneustes fossilis
6.5.5.3. Trichogaster fasciatus
6.5.5.4. Clarias batrachus
6.5.6. Respiratory membrane
6.5.7. A part of the alimentary canal modified for aerial respiration
6.5.8. Air bladder modified as respiratory organ
6.6. Origin and significance of the air breathing organs
7.1.1. Plasma
7.1.3.1.1. Lymphocytes
7.1.3.1.2. Monocytes
7.1.3.2.1. Neutrophils
7.1.3.2.2. Eosinophils
7.1.4. Thrombocytes
7.1.5. Formation of blood cells (hemopoiesis)
7.1.6. Function of blood cells
7.2.1. Structure of the heart of a teleost
7.2.2. Working of the heart
7.2.3. Cardio-vascular control
7.3. Arterial system in a teleost
8.1.2. Spinal cord
8.2.1. Cranial nerves
9.1.1. Structure of the kidney
9.2.3. Osmoregulation in freshwater fishes
9.2.4. Osmoregulation in marine water fishes
9.2.5. Control of osmoregulation
10.1. Sexual dimorphism
10.2.1.1. Histology of the tests
10.2.2.1.1 Oocyte I
10.2.2.1.3. Oocyte III
10.2.2.1.4. Oocyte IV
10.2.2.1.5 Oocyte V
10.2.2.1.6. Oocyte VI
10.2.2.1.7. Oocyte VII
10.2.2.1.8. Ripe egg
10.3.1.1. Resting phase of early immature condition
10.3.1.3. Maturing phase
10.3.1.4. Mature phase
10.3.1.5. Spent phase
10.3.2.2. Early maturing phase
10.3.2.3. Advanced maturing phase
10.3.2.4. Mature or prespawning phase
10.3.2.5. Spawning phase
10.3.2.6. Spent phase
10.4. Gamate release
10.5. Eggs
10.6.1. Cleavage and the formation of blastula
10.6.3. Gastrulation
10.6.4. Hatching and post-embryonic development
10.6.5.1. STAGE I
10.6.5.2. STAGE II
10.6.5.3. STAGE III
10.6.5.4. STAGE IV
10.6.5.5. STAGE V
11.1. Hormones
11.2.1. Origin
11.2.2. Location
11.2.3. Anatomy of the gland
11.2.4.1. Tropic or stimulating hormones
11.2.4.2. Gonadotropin
11.2.4.3. Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)
11.2.4.4. Prolactin
11.2.4.6. Melanocyte stimulating hormone (MSH) or intermedin
11.2.4.7. Oxytocin and vasopressin hormones
11.3.2. Histology of the thyroid gland
11.4. Adrenal cortical tissue or interrenal tissue
11.6. Ultimobranchial gland
11.7. Sex glands as endocrine organs
11.8. Corpuscles of Stannius
11.9. Intestinal mucosa
11.10. Islets of langerhans
11.11. Pineal organ
11.12. Urophysis
12.1.2. Neuromast organ
12.1.3. Nerve supply
12.1.4. Functions
12.2.1. Source of origin
12.3. Olfactory organs
13.2.2.1.1. Macrophytes
13.2.2.1.2. Phytoplanktons
13.2.2.2.1. Primary consumers (herbivores)
13.2.2.2.2. Secondary consumer (carnivores)
13.2.2.2.3.Tertiary consumers (carnivores)
13.2.2.3Decomposers
13.3.1.1. Thermal Properties of Lakes
13.3.1.2 Water Current
13.3.1.3. Turbidity
13.3.1.4. Light
13.3.2.1.Oxygen
13.3.2.2Carbon Dioxide
13.3.2.3 Total Alkalinity
13.3.2.4.pH
13.3.2.5. Disolved Solids
13.3.3. BIOTIC FACTORS
13.4. RESERVOIR ECOSYSTEM
13.5.1.1. Drowned river valleys
13.5.1.2. Fjord type estuaries
13.5.1.3. Bar built estuaries
13.5.1.4. Tectonic estuaries
13.5.1.5. Other kinds
13.5.2.1. High stratified estuaries
13.5.2.3. Moderately stratified estuaries
13.5.2.4. Vertically hemogeneous estuaries
13.5.3. Turbulence in Estuaries
13.5.4.1. Temperature
13.5.4.2.Salinity in Estuaries
13.5.5. CHARA CTERIS TICS OF ESTUARINE BIOTA
13.6.1.1. Beach
13.6.1.2.Sea Floor
13.6.2.1.1.Neritic province
13.6.2.1.2. Oceanic province
13.6.2.2.1. Littoral Zone
13.6.2.2.2. Eulittoral Zone
13.6.2.2.3. Sublittoral Zone
13.6.2.2.4.1. Archibenthic Zone
13.6.2.2.4.2. Abyssalbenthic Zone
13.6.3.1.. Waves
13.6.3.2. Ocean currents
13.6.3.3. Tides
13.6.3.4. Temperature
13.6.3.5. Pressure and wind flow
13.6.3.6.Light
13.6.3.7.Density
13.6.3.8. Hydrostatic pressure
13.6.3.9. Evaporation and precipitation
13.6.4.1. Salinity
13.6.4.2. Dissolved Oxygen
13.6.4.3. Free and bound carbon
13.6.4.4.PH
13.6.4.5.Nitrogen
13.6.4.6. Phosphates
13.6.4.7. Iron and other elements
13.6.4.9. Dissolved organic matter
13.7.1.1.Producers
13.7.1.2 Consumers
13.7.1.3. Decomposers
13.7.1.4.1. Plankton
13.7.1.4.2. Nekton
13.7.1.5. Benthic biota
13.8. LOTIC ECOSYSTEM
13.9.1. SINGLE- CHANNEL ENERGY MODELS
13.10.1. GRAZING FOOD CHAIN
13.10.2. DETRITUS FOOD CHAIN
13.11.1.1. PYRAMIDS OF NUMBER
13.11.1.2. PYRAMIDS OF BIOMASS
13.11.1.3. PYRAMID OF ENERGY
13.12.1. Primary productivity
13.12.2.Secondary productivity
13.12.3. Net productivity
13.13.1.2. ZOOPLANK TON
13.13.1.3.NEKTON
13.13.1.4 BENTHOS
13.13.1.5. PERIPHYTON
13.13.2. ROLE OF PLANKTON IN THE SURVIVAL AND GROWTH OF FISH
14.1. DEFINITION AND COMPOSITION OF SOIL
14.2. SOIL FORMATION
14.3.1. Alluvial soils
14.3.2. Black cotton or Regular soils
14.3.3. Red soils
14.3.4. Laterite soils
14.3.5. Mountain soils
14.3.6. Desert soils
14.4.SOIL TEXTURE
14.5 SOIL STRUCTURE
14.6.1.Soil Density
14.6.2Soil Permeability
14.6.3. Soil Temperature
14.6.4.Soil Air
14.6.5. Soil water
14.7.1. Hydrogen ion concentration (pH)
14.7.2. Phosphorus
14.7.3 Nitrogen
14.7.4 Organic carbon and C/N ratio
14.7.5. Calcium
14.8.1. Microflora
14.8.2. Microfauna
14.8.3. Mesofauna
14.8.4.Macrofauna
15.1. CHARACTERISTIC FEATURES OF THE BIOGEOCHEMICAL CYCLE
15.2. BASIC TYPES OF BIOGEOCHEMICAL CYCLES
15.3.1.1. Reservoir or pool
15.3.1.2. Cyclic water
15.3.2. LOCAL CYCLING
15.4. CARBON CYCLE
15.5. NITROGEN CYCLE
15.6.1. RESERVOIR
15.6.2.1. Withdrawal of oxygen
15.6.2.2. Return pathway
16.1.1. NETREPRODUCTIVE RATE (Ro)
16.1.2. POPULATION PRODUCTION:
16.1.3.1. Density dependent recruitment
16.1.3.2. Density dependent growth
16.1.3.3. Density dependent mortality
16.2. POPULATION STRUCTURE: YEAR-CLASSES
16.3.1. NATALITY VS MORTALITY
16.3.2. STOCK- RECRUITMENT RELATIONSHIP
16.4. POPULATION DYNAMICS AND FISHERY CATCHES:
17.1.DEFINITION
17.2.POLLUTANT
17.3.1. TYPES OF POLLUTION
17.4.1.Sewage and Domestic Wastes:
17.4.2. Industrial Wastes:
17.4.3Pesticides, Fertilizers and Detergents:
17.4.4.Toxic Metals:
17.4.5Thermal Pollution:
17.5.1. Physical Effects
17.5.2. Toxic Chemical Effects:
17.5.3. Chemical Nutrient Effects
17.5.4. Pathogenic Effects Caused by Micro-Organisms
17.5.5. Effects caused by Accumulation of Radioactive Substances
17.5.6. Industrial Pollution and Fisheries
17.5.7. Use of Fish as Biological Indicators of Water Pollution
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Fish Biology Ecology Theory

Fish Biology Ecology Theory

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Published by: Jose Augusto Solis Benites on Nov 15, 2011
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