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Esther Project 111

Esther Project 111

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Published by Abu Solomon

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Published by: Abu Solomon on Nov 15, 2011
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CHAPTER ONE1.0HISTORY OF HERBS
The use of plant as medicine predates within by human history, a 60,000 year old Neanderthal burial site Handier – 4 in Northern Iraq ha yielded large amount of  pollen from 8 plant specie, 7 of which are used now as herbal remedies .(Bibcorde 1975)In written record ,the study of herbs date back over 5,000 years to theSumerians, who described and established medicinal uses for such plant as Laurel,Caraway and thyme. Ancient Egyptian medicinal of 1000BC are known to have usedgarlic, opium, caster oil coriander, mint, indigo and other herbs for medicine and oldtestament to mention herb use and cultivation including Mandrakej Ayurvedamedicine has used many herbs such as tumeric possible as early as 1900BC.(Aggerwal and Sundaram 2007).Many other herbs and mineral used in Ayurveda were later described byancient Indian herbalist such as Characka, and Sunshruta during the 1
st
millenniumBC. The sunshrata in the 6
th
century BC describe 700 medicinal plant, 64 preparationfrom genial sources and 57 preparation based on animal sources (Girsih and Shridhar 2007).
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The first Chinese herbal book, the shennog Bencao Jing complied during Thehan dynasty, but dating back to a much earlier date possible 2700BC, list 365medicinal plant and their uses including ma-Huang, the shrub that produced the drugephedrine to modern medicine.Succeeding generation argumented on the Shennog Benca O. Hing as inyaoxing Lun (Treatise on the nature of medicinal herb) a 7
th
century Tang Dynastytreatise on herbal medicine the ancient Greeks and Romans medicinal practice as preserved in the sitings of Hippocrates and especially, Galen, provided the pattern for Laster western medicine Hippocrates advocated the use of a few simple herbal drugsalone with fresh air, rest and proper diet. Galen on the other hand, recommendedusage closes of drugs mixtures including plant and animal and mineral ingredient. Thegreek physician compiled the first European treatise on the properties and uses of medicinal plant, De material medica. In the first century AD, Diocordes note acompendium of more than 500 plants that remained an authoritative importantherbalist and botanist of later centuries was the Greek book founded the science of  botany eophrastus history plantiarum written in the fourth century BC. (Sundaram2007).
1.1MIDDLE AGES
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The use of plant for medicine and other purpose changed later in earlymedieval Europe. Many Geek and Roman writings on medicine is on the other subject, were preserved by hand copying of manuscript in monasteries. Themonasteries thus tended become local centers of medical knowledge and their herbgarden provided the raw material for simple treatment of common disorders at thesame time folk medicine in home and village continued interrupted supportingnumerous wandering and settled herbalist among these were the wise women whodescribed herbal remedies often along with spells and enchantment. It was not untilthe late middle ages that women who were knowledgeable in herb lore became thetarget of the witch hysteria. One of the most famous women in the herbal traditionwas Hilegard of Bingen. A twelfth century of Benedictine nun, she wrote a medicaltextbook called causes and scarces. Medical school known as Bimaristan began toappear from the 9
th
century in the medieval Islamic word. Among Arsians and Arabswhich was generally more advanced than medieval Europe at a time. The Arabvenerated Gracom culture and learning and translated tens of thousand of text intoArabic for further study. (Castleman and Micheal 2011).As a trading. Culture few Arab travelers had access to plant material fromdistant places such as China and India. Herbals medical texts and translation of theclassic of antiquity filtered in from the east and west. (Fahd and Toufic 1996).
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