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Title: Hinduism and Buddhism, Vol I. (of 3) An Historical Sketch
Author: Charles Eliot
Release Date: March 4, 2005 [EBook #15255]
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HINDUISM AND BUDDHISM AN HISTORICAL SKETCH
BY SIR CHARLES ELIOT
In three volumes VOLUME I
ROUTLEDGE & KEGAN PAUL LTD Broadway House, 68\u221274 Carter Lane, London, E.C.4.
The present work was begun in 1907 and was practically complete when the war broke out, but many
circumstances such as the difficulty of returning home, unavoidable delays in printing and correcting proofs,
and political duties have deferred its publication until now. In the interval many important books dealing with
Hinduism and Buddhism have appeared, but having been resident in the Far East (with one brief exception)
since 1912 I have found it exceedingly difficult to keep in touch with recent literature. Much of it has reached
me only in the last few months and I have often been compelled to notice new facts and views in footnotes
only, though I should have wished to modify the text.
Besides living for some time in the Far East, I have paid many visits to India, some of which were of
considerable length, and have travelled in all the countries of which I treat except Tibet. I have however seen
something of Lamaism near Darjeeling, in northern China and in Mongolia. But though I have in several
places described the beliefs and practices prevalent at the present day, my object is to trace the history and
development of religion in India and elsewhere with occasional remarks on its latest phases. I have not
In the following pages I have occasion to transcribe words belonging to many oriental languages in Latin
characters. Unfortunately a uniform system of transcription, applicable to all tongues, seems not to be
practical at present. It was attempted in the Sacred Books of the East, but that system has fallen into disuse
and is liable to be misunderstood. It therefore seems best to use for each language the method of transcription
adopted by standard works in English dealing with each, for French and German transcriptions, whatever their
merits may be as representations of the original sounds, are often misleading to English readers, especially in
Chinese. For Chinese I have adopted Wade's system as used in Giles'sDictionary, for Tibetan the system of
Sarat Chandra Das, for Pali that of the Pali Text Society and for Sanskrit that of Monier\u2212Williams's _Sanskrit
Dictionary,_ except that I write s instead of s. Indian languages however offer many difficulties: it is often
hard to decide whether Sanskrit or vernacular forms are more suitable and in dealing with Buddhist subjects
whether Sanskrit or Pali words should be used. I have found it convenient to vary the form of proper names
according as my remarks are based on Sanskrit or on Pali literature, but this obliges me to write the same
word differently in different places, e.g. sometimes Ajatasatru and sometimes Ajatasattu, just as in a book
dealing with Greek and Latin mythology one might employ both Herakles and Hercules. Also many Indian
names such as Ramayana, Krishna, nirvana have become Europeanized or at least are familiar to all
Europeans interested in Indian literature. It seems pedantic to write them with their full and accurate
complement of accents and dots and my general practice is to give such words in their accurate spelling
(Ramayana, etc.) when they are first mentioned and also in the notes but usually to print them in their simpler
and unaccented forms. I fear however that my practice in this matter is not entirely consistent since different
parts of the book were written at different times.
My best thanks are due to Mr R.F. Johnston (author of _Chinese Buddhism_), to Professor W.J. Hinton of the
University of Hong Kong and to Mr H.I. Harding of H.M. Legation at Peking for reading the proofs and
correcting many errors: to Sir E. Denison Ross and Professor L. Finot for valuable information: and especially
to Professor and Mrs Rhys Davids for much advice, though they are in no way responsible for the views
which I have expressed and perhaps do not agree with them. It is superfluous for me to pay a tribute to these
eminent scholars whose works are well known to all who are interested in Indian religion, but no one who has
studied the early history of Buddhism or the Pali language can refrain from acknowledging a debt of gratitude
to those who have made such researches possible by founding and maintaining during nearly forty years the
Pali Text Society and rendering many of the texts still more accessible to Europe by their explanations and
LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS
The following are the principal abbreviations used:
Ep. Ind. Epigraphia India.
E.R.E. Encyclopedia of Religion and Ethics (edited by Hastings).
I.A. Indian Antiquary.
J.A. Journal Asiatique.
J.A.O.S. Journal of the American Oriental Society.
J.R.A.S. Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society.
P.T.S. Pali Text Society.
S.B.E. Sacred Books of the East (Clarendon Press).
1. INFLUENCE OF INDIAN THOUGHT IN EASTERN ASIA xi
2. ORIGIN AND GROWTH OF HINDUISM xiv
3. THE BUDDHA xix
4. ASOKA xxii
5. EXTENSION OF BUDDHISM AND HINDUISM BEYOND INDIA xxiv
6. NEW FORMS OF BUDDHISM xxix
7. REVIVAL OF HINDUISM xxxiii
8. LATER FORMS OF HINDUISM xl
9. EUROPEAN INFLUENCE AND MODERN HINDUISM xlvi
10. CHANGE AND PERMANENCE IN BUDDHISM xlviii
11. REBIRTH AND THE NATURE OF THE SOUL l
14. EASTERN PESSIMISM AND RENUNCIATION lxv
15. EASTERN POLYTHEISM lxviii
16. THE EXTRAVAGANCE OF HINDUISM lxx
17. THE HINDU AND BUDDHIST SCRIPTURES lxxii
18. MORALITY AND WILL lxxvi
19. THE ORIGIN OF EVIL lxxix
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