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Electronic Nose

Electronic Nose



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Published by: api-3845765 on Oct 18, 2008
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Sree sailaja Suravarapu (y5ec089)Email-id:cheeringsailu@yahoo.co.inVijaya Kolli (y5ec116)Email-id:srisiri88@yahoo.com
The term "electronic nose" was first used in a jocular sense during our early work with sensor arrays in the 1980's. An electronic nose (e-nose) is a device that identifies thespecific components of an odor and analyzes its chemical makeup to identify it. Of all thefive senses, olfaction uses the largest part of the brain and is an essential part of our dailylives.Our human nose is elegant, sensitive, and self-repairing, but the E-nose sensors do notfatigue or get the "flu". Further, the E-nose can be sent to detect toxic and otherwisehazardous situations that humans may wish to avoid. An electronic nose can be regardedas a modular system comprising a set of active materials which detect the odour,associated sensors which transduce the chemical quantity into electrical signals, followed by appropriate signal conditioning and processing to classify known odours or identifyunknown odours. The signals generated by an array of odour sensors need to be processed in a sophisticated manner. An odor is composed of molecules, each of whichhas a specific size and shape. Each of these molecules has a correspondingly sized andshaped receptor in the human nose. When a specific receptor receives a molecule, it sendsa signal to the brain and the brain identifies the smell associated with that particular molecule. Electronic noses based on the biological model work in a similar manner,albeit substituting sensors for the receptors, and transmitting the signal to a program for  processing, rather than to the brain.Electronic noses are useful in various fields. Currently, the biggest market for electronicnoses is the food industry. Environmental applications of electronic noses includeanalysis of fuel mixtures, detection of oil leaks, testing ground water for odors, andidentification of household odors. Potential applications include identification of toxicwastes, air quality monitoring, and monitoring factory emissions. Sensors can detect toxicCO, which is odorless to humans. An electronic nose has applicability as a diagnostictool. The tragic bombings in London on the 7 July 2005 have caused many to call for bag
searching at the ticket barriers on the Underground. This would cause huge delays, apartfrom finding the manpower to do it. A possible alternative is using an “electronic nose”to sniff out possible explosives so that only selected bags need to be searched by staff.
Scientists have endowed computers witheyes to see, thanks to digital cameras,and ears to hear, via microphones andsophisticated recognition software. Nowthey're taking computers further into therealm of the senses with thedevelopment of an artificial nose. Theterm "electronic nose" was first used in a jocular sense during our early work withsensor arrays in the 1980's. As thetechnology developed, it becameapparent that the animal and humanolfactory systems operate on the same principle: A relatively small number of nonselective receptors allow thediscrimination of thousands of differentodors. Electronic/artificial noses are being developed as systems for theautomated detection and classification of odors, vapors, and gases. An electronicnose (e-nose) is a device that identifiesthe specific components of an odor andanalyzes its chemical makeup to identifyit.
An electronic nose can be regarded as amodular system comprising a set of active materials which detect the odour,associated sensors which transduce thechemical quantity into electrical signals,followed by appropriate signalconditioning and processing to classifyknown odours or identify unknownodours. The "electronic nose" is arelatively new tool that may be used for safety, quality, or process monitoring,accomplishing in a few minutes procedures that may presently requiredays to complete. The two maincomponents of an electronic nose are thesensing system which consists ochemical sensors and the automated pattern recognition system. The sensingsystem can be an array of severaldifferent sensing elements (e.g.,chemical sensors), where each elementmeasures a different property of thesensed chemical, or it can be a singlesensing device (e.g., spectrometer) that produces an array of measurements for each chemical, or it can be acombination. The quantity and

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