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How Your Brain Work1

How Your Brain Work1

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How Your Brain Works
by Craig Freudenrich, Ph.D.
Introduction
Every animal you can think of -- mammals, birds, reptiles, fish, amphibians -- has a brain. But the human brain
is unique. It gives us the power to think, plan, speak, imagine... It is truly an amazing organ.
The brain performs an incredible number of tasks:
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It controls body temperature, blood pressure, heart rate and breathing.
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It accepts a flood of information about the world around you from your various senses (seeing, hearing,
smelling, tasting, touching, etc).
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It handles physical motion when walking, talking, standing or sitting.
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It lets you think, dream, reason and experience emotions.
All of these tasks are coordinated, controlled and regulated by an organ that is about the size of a small head of
cauliflower: your brain.

Your brain, spinal cord and peripheral nerves make up a complex, integrated information-processing and control system. The scientific study of the brain and nervous system is calledneuroscience or

neurobiology. Because the field of neuroscience is so vast, and the brain
and nervous system so complex, this article will start at the beginning
and give you an overview of this amazing organ.

In this article, we will examine the structures of the brain and what each one does. With this general overview of the brain, you will be able to understand concepts such as motor control, visual processing, auditory processing, sensation, learning, memory and emotions, which we will cover in detail in future articles.

Looking Inside the Brain
MRI machines are commonly used to investigate the brain. See how much you know about them in ourMRI
Quiz.
Neuron Structure

Your brain is made of approximately 100 billion nerve cells, calledneuro ns. Neurons have the amazing ability to gather and transmit electrochemical signals -- they are something like the gates and wires in a computer. Neurons share the same characteristics and have the same parts as other cells, but the electrochemical aspect lets them transmit signals over long distances (up to several feet or a few meters) and pass messages to each other.

Neurons have three basic parts:
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Cell body - This main part has all of the necessary components of the cell, such as the nucleus (contains
DNA), endoplasmic reticulum and ribosomes (for building proteins) and mitochondria (for making
energy). If the cell body dies, the neuron dies.
The human brain.
See more brain pictures.
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Axon - This long, cable-like projection of the cell carries the electrochemical message (nerve impulse
or action potential) along the length of the cell.
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Depending upon the type of neuron, axons can be covered with a thin layer ofmy eli n, like an insulated electrical wire. Myelin is made of fat, and it helps to speed transmission of a nerve impulse down a long axon. Myelinated neurons are typically found in the peripheral nerves (sensory and motor neurons), while non-myelinated neurons are found in the brain and spinal cord.

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Dendritesor nerve endings - These small, branch-like projections of the cell make connections to other
cells and allow the neuron to talk with other cells or perceive the environment. Dendrites can be located
on one or both ends of the cell.
Basic Neuron Types

Neurons come in many sizes. For example, a single sensory neuron from your fingertip has an axon that extends the length of your arm, while neurons within the brain may extend only a few millimeters. Neurons have different shapes depending on what they do. Motor neurons that control muscle contractions have a cell body on one end, a long axon in the middle and dendrites on the other end; sensory neurons have dendrites on both ends, connected by a long axon with a cell body in the middle.

Neurons also vary with respect to their functions:
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Sensory neurons carry signals from the outer parts of your body (periphery) into the central nervous
system.
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Motor neurons (motoneurons) carry signals from the central nervous system to the outer parts
(muscles, skin, glands) of your body.
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Receptors sense the environment (chemicals, light, sound, touch) and encode this information into
electrochemical messages that are transmitted by sensory neurons.
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Interneurons connect various neurons within the brain and spinal cord.

The simplest type of neural pathway is amon osyn ap tic (single connection) reflex pathway, like the knee-jerk reflex. When the doctor taps the right spot on your knee with a rubber hammer, receptors send a signal into the spinal cord through a sensory neuron. The sensory neuron passes the message to a motor neuron that controls your leg muscles. Nerve impulses travel down the motor neuron and stimulate the appropriate leg muscle to contract. The response is a muscular jerk that happens quickly and does not involve your brain. Humans have lots of hard-wired reflexes like this, but as tasks become more complex, the pathway "circuitry" gets more complicated and the brain gets involved.

Brain Parts

The simplest possible creatures have incredibly simple nervous systems made up of nothing but reflex pathways. For example, flatworms and invertebrates do not have a centralized brain. They have loose associations of neurons arranged in simple reflex pathways. Flatworms have neural nets, individual neurons linked together that form a net around the entire animal.

Most invertebrates (such as the lobster) have simple "brains" that consist of localized collections of neuronal cell bodies calledganglia. Each ganglion controls sensory and motor functions in its segment through reflex pathways, and the ganglia are linked together to form a simple nervous system. As nervous systems evolved, chains of ganglia evolved into more centralized simple brains.

Brains evolved from ganglia of invertebrates. Regardless of the
animal, brains have the following parts:
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Brain stem - The brain stem consists of the medulla(an

enlarged portion of the upper spinal cord),pons andmid b rain (lower animals have only a medulla). The brain stem controls the reflexes and automatic functions (heart rate, blood pressure), limb movements and visceral functions (digestion, urination).

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Cerebellum - The cerebellum integrates information from the vestibular system that indicates position
and movement and uses this information to coordinate limb movements.
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Hypothalamusand pituitary gland - These control visceral functions, body temperature and behavioral
responses such as feeding, drinking, sexual response, aggression and pleasure.
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Cerebrum (also called the cerebral cortex or just the cortex) - The cerebrum consists of the cortex,

large fiber tracts (corpus callosum) and some deeper structures (basal ganglia, amygdala, hippocampus). It integrates information from all of the sense organs, initiates motor functions, controls emotions and holds memory and thought processes (emotional expression and thinking are more prevalent in higher mammals).

Some types of neurons: motoneuron (a), sensory neuron (b),
cortical pyramidal cell (c)
Major Divisions of the Brain
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Spinal cord
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Brain stem
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Forebrain
o
Diencephalon
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thalamus, hypothalamus
o
Cerebral cortex

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