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The second kind of multiplication produces a vector. Again θ is the angle
2. Suppose P and Q are two points that are on separate surfaces that are
The symbol δij is called the Kronecker delta. It is a 3x3 matrix whose
1. Repeated indices mean “sum”. The repeated index is a dummy and
3. The operator i ≡∂/∂xi operates on everything to its right
7. Products of Levi-Civita tensors may be reduced if an index is repeated
The magnitude of r is a scalar quantity given by r = √xixi. The time
These latter equations are Lagrange’s Equations and they are the differ-
3. A small displacement of the particle is denoted ds. If θ and φ are held
Proof: The proof is a simple application of the chain rule. The generalized
QED. This important operation is called “lowering the index.”
QED. This important operation is called “raising the index.”
Relativity (see Chapter 10). The mathematical formalism can also be
Law are Lagrange’s equations
These are Lagrange’s equations and they are very important in theoretical
1. Lagrange’s equations are just the components of Newton’s Second Law
Lagrange’s equations and to show their connection to Newton’s Second
Solution: Use the chain rule to write ¨x = d˙x/dt = (d˙x/dx)(dx/dt) =
Method of solution: The right-hand side of the equation is a Fourier series
A trial solution of the form Q = X cos(ωt−α) can be substituted. Q and X
Note that the right-hand sides are free of explicit “dotted” variables
1. Computer Project 1 (see Appendix)
But Newton’s Second Law in one dimension allows us to replace F with
What did dimensional analysis tell you to expect (see Appendix B)? If
3. A particle of mass m is initially at rest. A constant force F0 acts on
10. Find the one-dimensional motion of a particle if its potential energy is
11. The potential energy of a particle moving in one dimension is
13. Since both the Coulomb force and the force of gravity obey inverse
15. A pendulum swings with an amplitude of 20 degrees. What is the
17. Computer Project 3 (see Appendix)
18. Computer Project 4 (See Appendix)
19. Computer Project 5 (See Appendix)
20. Computer Project 6 (See Appendix)
A region Σ is simply connected if every closed path in Σ can be continuously
Let the path of integration implied in F·ds shrink until it just bounds dσ
The Lorentz Force is the force exerted on a charged particle (of charge q) by
Proof: Let the Lorentz force be the net force on a particle. Since dW =
B = ×A
Proof: Lagrange’s equations apply to a system with only conservative
We also used the above result from Lagrange’s equations to replace
These equations are called Hamilton’s Equations. Observe that they are
Although Hamilton’s equations can be used readily in place of Lagrange’s
Proof: We shall obtain this result by trial-and-error. We observe that the
The Coriolus force is a little harder. Now we seek a scalar that involves
7. Experimental: Measure the period of the Foucault pendulum in the
8. Experimental: Experience the rotating room (also called the Vomit
Vortex). The Vomit Vortex is a large metal cylinder that looks sort of
This equation has a transient solution x = Acos(θ−θ0) and a particular
We are now position to prove Kepler’s Laws:
The third law was published later in 1618. Observe that Kepler’s Second
If we integrate Kepler’s Second Law over one period and use the formula
The magnitude of the angular momentum is given by = mv0s. Since θ is
9. Computer Project 10 (See Appendix)
10. Computer Project 8 (See Appendix)
11. Hard spheres of radius b are elastically scattered by hard spheres of
The impact parameter is s and the scattering angle is φ. An analysis
12. • A particle of energy E crosses a boundary where the potential
Newton’s Second Law for the motion of the center-of-mass. F is the net
3 sinθsinφ −sinθcosφ cosθ
6. Find the solution to Euler’s Equations in the absence of torque for
7. Find the solutions of Euler’s equations for principal axes when I11 =
Solution: This is a straightforward application of Euler’s equations
The initial condition is ω1 = ω2 = 0 at t = 0 and should allow you to
10. Experimental: Go to the walk-in laboratory area designated by your
The four-vector formulation of Special Relativity can bring one to a deeper
This is exactly the form of the transformation we seek. By “reasonably
The expression for dt is a straightforward application of Pythagoras’ theorem
Exercise: Draw a diagram showing Event 1 and Event 2 and show that
Exercise: Draw a diagram showing Event 3 and Event 4 and show that
It is “restricted” because we have constrained all of our motions to be along
Galilean transformation. This is as it should be because the Galilean trans-
2. Postulate of the Speed of Light: The speed of light in vacuum is
3. Postulate of Causality: Information is not propagated at greater
1. Non-Simultaneity of Events: The first consequence has to do with
A’. The observer in the primed system judges that the events are not
2. Lorentz Contraction: A second immediate consequence of the Lorentz
4. Addition Law for Velocities: Having replaced the Galilean transfor-
Exercise: Consider the following. Perhaps you have seen a pole vaulter
1. The transformation R is an orthogonal transformation. This means
2. The determinant of R = +1. This feature is characteristic of a proper
All of this is done in terms of the special Lorentz transformation. How-
Exercise: Use the general Lorentz transformation without rotation to
3. If we wish our “laws of physics” to have the same form (covariance)
We have thus recovered the result called “time dilation.”
The quantity k·x−ωt is called the phase of the wave. It is a dimensionless
Theory of Relativity called General Relativity. The laws of General Relativity
Maxwell’s equations to electromagentic phenomena. What we shall show
Here we must add another postulate to our theory of Special Relativity:
4. Postulate of Charge Invariance: The electric charge on an elemen-
We can also “raise the indices” to create the contravariant components
The first two of Maxwell’s equations have sources on the right as does the
first of the two relativistic equations. The second two of Maxwell’s equations
Exercise: Demonstrate how ·B = 0 follows from the four-vector form
Newton’s Second Law in those instances where the force is electromagnetic
Exercise: Verify the relationship between the Minkowski force and the
There is a peculiar consequence of the relativistic Second Law
It is possible within Special Relativity to have a particle for which m0 = 0
= 0. The total relativistic three-momentum P and Et/c are the elements
The “after” four-momentum (for threshold) in the center-of-mass frame con-
We simplify the “after” expression by systematically eliminating four-vectors
Variants of the differential cross-section are also used. For Rutherford
Ross L. Spencer and Grant W. Mason
Brigham Young University
1. Computer Project: Theory One of the most commonly occurring
2. Computer Project: Theory If an object falls through a medium
Newton’s Second Law for an object of mass m can be written approx-
Consider a billiard ball falling through the air. The ball has a radius R
Newtons. The billiard ball has mass m = 0.220 kg. Note that the
3. Computer Project: Theory The differential equation for the one-
((c1 + c2)cosω1t+ i(c2−c1)sinω1t)
Now B and β are to be determined by initial conditions
The method then assumes that A and φ are varying slowly enough that
4. Computer Project: Theory What happens if the damped harmonic
I recommend using ωo = 2π and τ = 0.2 and running ODE for a
6. Computer Project: Theory This project is a continuation of the
7. Computer Project: Theory The Lagrangian for a simple pendulum
8. Computer Project: Theory The following treatment illustrates a
The ωi are called the eigenfrequencies and the X0i are the eigenvectors
The constants ai and αi are determined by initial conditions. In general
Set up a ODE model for this system
9. Computer Project: Use ODE to numerically solve for the motion of
10. Computer Project: In the previous exercise we used all 8 variables
11. Computer Project: You are playing championship basketball on a
12. Computer Project: Use ODE to solve Euler’s equations for a spin-
The square brackets [ ] are to be interpreted to mean “dimensions of the
0 of .
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