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Chp 11

Chp 11

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Published by: Susanoo12 on Nov 16, 2011
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11
The Equipment Design Process
Most engineers, at some point in their careers, are aced with the problemo selecting a material o construction or a specic project or application.This applies equally to mechanical, civil, chemical, aeronautical, or any otherengineering or related discipline.In most cases the selection process requires that the engineer must reerto more than one engineering discipline in order to select the most suitablematerial o construction. For example, chemical engineers must be aware othe mechanical properties o materials, as must structural engineers, while both must be aware o the corrosion-resistant properties o materials — andso with other engineering disciplines.It is the purpose o this chapter to point out the various considerations thatmust be taken into account, with primary emphasis being placed on corro-sion resistance.
11.1 Understanding the Application
Beore any consideration can be given to the selection o a material o con-struction, there must be a thorough understanding o the application.I the application is a structure, whether it be a tower, bridge, or building,it is important that the location be dened because it will be subject to atmo-spheric corrosion.Because atmospheric corrosion rates are aected by local conditions, atmo-spheres are classied according to exposure conditions. The major catego-ries, based on potential corrosion rates, are:Rural
•
Urban
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Industrial
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Marine
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Indoor
•
The rst our categories can be urther subdivided into arctic, temperate, andtropical (wet or dry) because the dierences in temperature, humidity, and
© 2010 by Taylor and Francis Group, LLC
 
330
Fundamentals of Corrosion
seawater composition all have a bearing on the corrosion rates. However, weare primarily concerned with conditions in the temperate category. But keepin mind that in the southern sections o the temperate zone, ambient temper-atures may be relatively high, which can have an eect on corrosion rates.A rural atmosphere is generally that o an inland arm with little or noheavy manuacturing operations. In such areas, the problems o atmosphericcorrosion will be somewhat diminished. The same will apply in very dryclimatic conditions.Urban atmospheres, even when ree rom industrial pollution, are subjectto pollution rom road trac and the burning o ossil uels. The ormer pro-duces oxides o nitrogen, which may be oxidized to nitric acid. The latter hasthe potential o generating sulur dioxide, which is converted to suluric andsulurous acid in the presence o moisture.In an industrial atmosphere, all types o contamination by sulur in theorm o sulur dioxide or hydrogen sulde are important. The burning o os-sil uels generates a large amount o sulur dioxide, which is converted to sul-uric and sulurous acids in the presence o moisture. Combustion o theseossil uels and hazardous waste products should produce only carbon diox-ide, water vapor, and inert gas combustion products. This is seldom the case.Depending on the impurities contained in the ossil uel, the chemical com-position o the hazardous waste materials incinerated, and the combustionconditions encountered, a multitude o other compounds may be ormed.In addition to the most common contaminants previously mentioned, pol-lutants such as hydrogen chloride, chlorine, hydrogen fuoride, and hydro-gen bromide are produced as combustion products rom the burning ochemical waste. When organophosphorous compounds are incinerated, cor-rosive phosphorous compounds are produced. Chlorides are also a producto municipal waste incinerators.Energy production leads to the ormation o oxides o nitrogen, which may beoxidized to nitric acid. This reaction has a very low rate; thereore, in the vicin-ity o the emission source, the concentration o nitric acid and nitrites is verylow. The greatest eect will occur at some distance rom the emission source.The antipollution regulations that have been enacted do not prevent theescape into the atmosphere o quantities o these materials sucient to pre-vent corrosion problems. The corrosivity o an industrial atmosphere dimin-ishes with increasing distance rom the area.Marine environments are subject to chloride attack resulting rom thedeposition o droplets o crystals ormed by evaporation o spray that has been carried by the wind rom the sea. The quantity o chloride depositionsrom a marine environment is directly proportional to the distance romthe shore — the closer to the shore, the greater the deposition and corrosiveeect. The atmospheric test station at Kure Beach, North Carolina, showsthat steel exposed 80 t rom the ocean corrodes 10 to 15 times aster thansteel exposed 800 t rom the ocean. The distance rom the shore at whichmarine atmospheres cease depends on the prevailing winds, the distance
© 2010 by Taylor and Francis Group, LLC
 
The Equipment Design Process
331
they travel over at speed, and the height o the local sur. Mixtures o marineand industrial eects are common in many areas, with each type o contami-nant aggravating the other.In addition to these general air contaminants, there may also be specicpollutants ound in a localized area. These may be emitted rom a manu-acturing operation on a continuous or spasmodic basis and can result in amuch more serious corrosion problem than that caused by the presence ogeneral atmospheric pollutants.Because o these varying conditions, a material that is resistant to atmo-spheric corrosion in one area might not be satisactory in another area. Forexample, galvanized iron is perectly suitable or application in a rural atmo-sphere but is not suitable when exposed to industrial atmospheres.To compound the problem, there is no clear line o demarcation betweenthese atmospheric types. In many cases, there is no “pure” rural or urban area.Contamination rom industrial or marine areas may nd its way into theseareas based on the prevailing winds and other atmospheric conditions.Indoor atmospheres may be ree o corrosion in clean rooms” or subject tosevere corrosion, as around a pickling bath in a steel mill.Atmospheric conditions should be dened in terms o temperature, humid-ity, and contaminants, as well as their corrosivity to the specic materialso construction being considered. In addition to the general atmosphericconditions, special conditions such as cooling tower drit or spray, spills, orreleases o water or chemicals should not be overlooked and must be takeninto account.I the application is a process vessel, storage tank, or pipeline, the ol-lowing inormation must be known about the process and/or the material being handled:1. What are the primary chemicals being handled? And at what concen-trations?2. Are there any secondary chemicals? And i so, at what concen-trations?3. Are there any trace impurities or chemicals?4. Are there any solids present? And i so, what are their particle sizesand concentrations?5. I a vessel, will there be agitation? And i so, to what degree? I apipeline, what are the fow rates (maximum and minimum)?6. What are the fuid purity requirements?The answers to the above questions will narrow the selection to those mate-rials that are compatible. The next set o questions will narrow the selectionurther by eliminating materials that do not have the required physical and/or mechanical properties required:
© 2010 by Taylor and Francis Group, LLC

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