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cac van de ve virut

cac van de ve virut

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Published by api-3824964

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Published by: api-3824964 on Oct 18, 2008
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03/18/2014

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fView Full Version : C\u00e1c v\u1ea5n \u0111\u1ec1 v\u1ec1 Hack, keylogger, ph\u00e1 b\u0103ng
kudatino
03-08-2005, 01:14 AM
B\u00e0i h\u01a1i d\u00e0i,nh\u01b0ng \u0111\u01b0ng n\u00ean b\u1ecf qu\u00e1 v\u00ec r\u1ea5t quan tr\u1ecdng,v\u00e0 \u0111\u00e2y l\u00e0 b\u00e0i s\u01b0u t\u1ea7m !!!
HackerVN Hack FAQ :

L\u1eddi n\u00f3i \u0111\u1ea7u: Th\u1ec3 theo y\u00eau c\u1ea7u c\u1ee7a m\u1ecdi ng\u01b0\u1eddi, ban \u0111i\u1ec1u h\u00e0nh HackerVn \u0111\u00e3 cho ra \u0111\u1eddi b\u1ea3n FAQ n\u00e0y
d\u00e0nh cho nh\u1eefng b\u1ea1n m\u1edbi l\u00e0m quen v\u1edbi ngh\u1ec7 thu\u1eadt Hacking v\u00e0 Internet. B\u1ea1n c\u00f3 th\u1ec3 t\u1ef1 t\u00ecm t\u00f2i nh\u1eefng
\u0111i\u1ec1u c\u0103n b\u1ea3n m\u00e0 b\u1ea5t c\u1ee9 Hacker n\u00e0o c\u0169ng ph\u1ea3i "master". Hy v\u1ecdng nh\u1eefng kh\u00e1i ni\u1ec7m trong b\u00e0i vi\u1ebft n\u00e0y
s\u1ebd gi\u1ea3i \u0111\u00e1p \u0111\u01b0\u1ee3c nhi\u1ec1u th\u1eafc m\u1eafc c\u1ee7a m\u1ed9t s\u1ed1 b\u1ea1n. N\u1ebfu b\u1ea1n c\u1ea3m th\u1ea5y nh\u1eefng ki\u1ebfn th\u1ee9c d\u01b0\u1edbi \u0111\u00e2y kh\u00f4ng
\u0111\u00fang ho\u1eb7c thi\u1ebfu ch\u00ednh x\u00e1c b\u1ea1n c\u00f3 th\u1ec3 g\u1eedi th\u01b0 g\u00f3p \u00fd .
B\u1ea3n FAQ n\u00e0y d\u1ef1a tr\u00ean c\u01a1 s\u1edf \u0111\u00f3ng g\u00f3p, g\u00f3p \u00fd c\u1ee7a c\u00e1c th\u00e0nh vi\u00ean tr\u00ean HackerVN community, v\u1eady
n\u1ebfu b\u1ea1n c\u00f3 c\u00e2u h\u1ecfi hay gi\u1ea3i \u0111\u00e1p mu\u1ed1n ch\u00fang t\u00f4i th\u00eam v\u00e0o b\u1ea3n FAQ n\u00e0y th\u00ec xin li\u00ean h\u1ec7 v\u1edbi \u0111\u1ecba ch\u1ec9 e-
mail \u1edf tr\u00ean ho\u1eb7c c\u00f3 th\u1ec3 g\u1eedi l\u00ean tr\u00ean forum. \u0110\u1ec3 trang tr\u1edf n\u00ean th\u1eadt s\u1ef1 h\u1eefu \u00edch v\u00e0 \u0111\u1ec3 gi\u00fap HackerVN
ti\u1ebfn l\u00ean ph\u00eda tr\u01b0\u1edbc ch\u00fang t\u00f4i thi\u1ebft tha s\u1ef1 gi\u00fap \u0111\u1ee1 v\u00e0 \u0111\u00f3ng g\u00f3p c\u1ee7a b\u1ea1n. "M\u1ed9t c\u00e2y l\u00e0m ch\u1eb3ng n\u00ean non,
ba c\u00e2y ch\u1ee5m l\u1ea1i n\u00ean h\u00f2n n\u00fai cao".
Internet

\u0110\u1ecba ch\u1ec9 IP (IP Address)
(By Conan_Dole and BlackArt)

Tr\u00ean m\u1ea1ng Internet n\u00f3 s\u1ebd x\u00e1c \u0111\u1ecbnh ch\u00ednh b\u1ea1n. Khi k\u1ebft n\u1ed1i v\u00e0o m\u1ea1ng th\u00ec IP c\u1ee7a b\u1ea1n l\u00e0 duy nh\u1ea5t tr\u00ean
th\u1ebf gi\u1edbi. Tuy nhi\u00ean s\u1ed1 n\u00e0y ch\u01b0a h\u1eb3n l\u00e0 c\u1ed1 \u0111\u1ecbnh. N\u1ebfu b\u1ea1n v\u00e0o m\u1ea1ng qua m\u1ed9t ISP th\u00ec s\u1ed1 IP c\u1ee7a b\u1ea1n s\u1ebd
thay \u0111\u1ed5i \u1edf c\u00e1c l\u1ea7n b\u1ea1n k\u1ebft n\u1ed1i.
M\u1ed9t ng\u01b0\u1eddi bi\u1ebft IP c\u1ee7a b\u1ea1n th\u00ec c\u00f3 th\u1ec3 l\u1ea7n ra v\u1ecb tr\u00ed c\u1ee7a b\u1ea1n. Ngh\u0129a l\u00e0 khi c\u00f3 IP th\u00ec bi\u1ebft \u0111\u01b0\u1ee3c \u0111\u1ecba ch\u1ec9 c\u1ee7a
ISP r\u1ed3i bi\u1ebft \u0111\u01b0\u1ee3c th\u00f4ng tin c\u1ee7a b\u1ea1n. Tr\u00ean th\u1ef1c t\u1ebf, IP cho bi\u1ebft v\u1ec1 m\u00e1y t\u00ednh \u0111\u01b0\u1ee3c s\u1eed d\u1ee5ng \u0111\u1ec3 v\u00e0o m\u1ea1ng
ch\u1ee9 kh\u00f4ng cho bi\u1ebft th\u00f4ng tin v\u1ec1 ng\u01b0\u1eddi s\u1eed d\u1ee5ng, tr\u1eeb khi IP c\u1ee7a b\u1ea1n l\u00e0 c\u1ed1 \u0111\u1ecbnh ho\u1eb7c s\u1eed d\u1ee5ng account
c\u1ee7a ri\u00eang b\u1ea1n.
S\u1ef1 kh\u00e1c nhau gi\u1eefa logic (hostname) v\u00e0 m\u1ed9t \u0111\u1ecba ch\u1ec9 IP:
\u0110\u01a1n gi\u1ea3n ch\u1ec9 b\u1edfi v\u00ec vi\u1ec7c g\u1ecdi t\u00ean, v\u00ed d\u1ee5 www.yourname.com s\u1ebd d\u1ec5 h\u01a1n nhi\u1ec1u \u0111\u1ed1i v\u1edbi vi\u1ec7c ph\u1ea3i g\u1ecdi
202.32.156.14. Tuy v\u1eady, c\u00f3 m\u1ed9t s\u1ef1 kh\u00e1c bi\u1ec7t quan tr\u1ecdng gi\u1eefa 2 \u0111i\u1ec1u n\u00e0y. IP l\u00e0 s\u1ed1 \u0111\u1ec3 x\u00e1c \u0111\u1ecbnh thi\u1ebft b\u1ecb
(device) c\u00f2n hostname l\u00e0 m\u1ed9t m\u1ed1i li\u00ean k\u1ebft gi\u1eefa 1 t\u1eeb kho\u00e1 v\u00e0 m\u1ed9t s\u1ed1 IP. M\u1ed9t \u0111\u1ecba ch\u1ec9 IP c\u00f3 th\u1ec3 c\u00f3
nhi\u1ec1u hostname kh\u00e1c nhau nh\u01b0ng m\u1ed9t hostname th\u00ec ch\u1ec9 c\u00f3 m\u1ed9t IP li\u00ean k\u1ebft v\u1edbi n\u00f3.
\u0110\u1ecba ch\u1ec9 IP \u0111\u01b0\u1ee3c chia th\u00e0nh 4 s\u1ed1 gi\u1edbi h\u1ea1n t\u1eeb 0 - 255. M\u1ed7i s\u1ed1 \u0111\u01b0\u1ee3c l\u01b0u b\u1edfi 1 byte -> !P c\u00f3 kicks th\u01b0\u1edbc
l\u00e0 4byte, \u0111\u01b0\u1ee3c chia th\u00e0nh c\u00e1c l\u1edbp \u0111\u1ecba ch\u1ec9. C\u00f3 3 l\u1edbp l\u00e0 A, B, v\u00e0 C. N\u1ebfu \u1edf l\u1edbp A, ta s\u1ebd c\u00f3 th\u1ec3 c\u00f3 16 tri\u1ec7u
\u0111i\u1ea1 ch\u1ec9, \u1edf l\u1edbp B c\u00f3 65536 \u0111\u1ecba ch\u1ec9. V\u00ed d\u1ee5: \u1ede l\u1edbp B v\u1edbi 132.25,ch\u00fang ta c\u00f3 t\u1ea5t c\u1ea3 c\u00e1c \u0111\u1ecba ch\u1ec9 t\u1eeb
132.25.0.0 \u0111\u1ebfn 132.25.255.255. Ph\u1ea7n l\u1edbn c\u00e1c \u0111\u1ecba ch\u1ec9 \u1edf l\u1edbp A ll\u00e0 s\u1edf h\u1eefu c\u1ee7a c\u00e1c c\u00f4ng ty hay c\u1ee7a t\u1ed5
ch\u1ee9c. M\u1ed9t ISP th\u01b0\u1eddng s\u1edf h\u1eefu m\u1ed9t v\u00e0i \u0111\u1ecba ch\u1ec9 l\u1edbp B ho\u1eb7c C. V\u00ed d\u1ee5: N\u1ebfu \u0111\u1ecba ch\u1ec9 IP c\u1ee7a b\u1ea1n l\u00e0
132.25.23.24 th\u00ec b\u1ea1n c\u00f3 th\u1ec3 x\u00e1c \u0111\u1ecbnh ISP c\u1ee7a b\u1ea1n l\u00e0 ai. ( c\u00f3 IP l\u00e0 132.25.x.)

IP th\u1ec3 hi\u1ec7n \u0111i\u1ec1u g\u00ec: Tr\u00ean m\u1ea1ng Internet n\u00f3 s\u1ebd x\u00e1c \u0111\u1ecbnh ch\u00ednh b\u1ea1n. Khi k\u1ebft n\u1ed1i v\u00e0o m\u1ea1ng th\u00ec IP c\u1ee7a
b\u1ea1n l\u00e0 duy nh\u1ea5t tr\u00ean th\u1ebf gi\u1edbi. Tuy nhi\u00ean s\u1ed1 n\u00e0y ch\u01b0a h\u1eb3n l\u00e0 c\u1ed1 \u0111\u1ecbnh. N\u1ebfu b\u1ea1n v\u00e0o m\u1ea1ng qua m\u1ed9t ISP
th\u00ec s\u1ed1 IP c\u1ee7a b\u1ea1n s\u1ebd thay \u0111\u1ed5i \u1edf c\u00e1c l\u1ea7n b\u1ea1n k\u1ebft n\u1ed1i.
M\u1ed9t ng\u01b0\u1eddi bi\u1ebft IP c\u1ee7a b\u1ea1n th\u00ec c\u00f3 th\u1ec3 l\u1ea7n ra v\u1ecb tr\u00ed c\u1ee7a b\u1ea1n. Ngh\u0129a l\u00e0 khi c\u00f3 IP th\u00ec bi\u1ebft \u0111\u01b0\u1ee3c \u0111\u1ecba ch\u1ec9 c\u1ee7a
ISP r\u1ed3i bi\u1ebft \u0111\u01b0\u1ee3c th\u00f4ng tin c\u1ee7a b\u1ea1n. Tr\u00ean th\u1ef1c t\u1ebf, IP cho bi\u1ebft v\u1ec1 m\u00e1y t\u00ednh \u0111\u01b0\u1ee3c s\u1eed d\u1ee5ng \u0111\u1ec3 v\u00e0o m\u1ea1ng
ch\u1ee9 kh\u00f4ng cho bi\u1ebft th\u00f4ng tin v\u1ec1 ng\u01b0\u1eddi s\u1eed d\u1ee5ng, tr\u1eeb khi IP c\u1ee7a b\u1ea1n l\u00e0 c\u1ed1 \u0111\u1ecbnh ho\u1eb7c s\u1eed d\u1ee5ng account
c\u1ee7a ri\u00eang b\u1ea1n.

S\u1ef1 kh\u00e1c nhau gi\u1eefa logic (hostname) v\u00e0 m\u1ed9t \u0111\u1ecba ch\u1ec9 IP:
\u0110\u01a1n gi\u1ea3n ch\u1ec9 b\u1edfi v\u00ec vi\u1ec7c g\u1ecdi t\u00ean, v\u00ed d\u1ee5 http://www.yourname.com/ s\u1ebd d\u1ec5 h\u01a1n nhi\u1ec1u \u0111\u1ed1i v\u1edbi vi\u1ec7c ph\u1ea3i

g\u1ecdi 202.32.156.14. Tuy v\u1eady, c\u00f3 m\u1ed9t s\u1ef1 kh\u00e1c bi\u1ec7t quan tr\u1ecdng gi\u1eefa 2 \u0111i\u1ec1u n\u00e0y. IP l\u00e0 s\u1ed1 \u0111\u1ec3 x\u00e1c \u0111\u1ecbnh
thi\u1ebft b\u1ecb (device) c\u00f2n hostname l\u00e0 m\u1ed9t m\u1ed1i li\u00ean k\u1ebft gi\u1eefa 1 t\u1eeb kho\u00e1 v\u00e0 m\u1ed9t s\u1ed1 IP. M\u1ed9t \u0111\u1ecba ch\u1ec9 IP c\u00f3 th\u1ec3
c\u00f3 nhi\u1ec1u hostname kh\u00e1c nhau nh\u01b0ng m\u1ed9t hostname th\u00ec ch\u1ec9 c\u00f3 m\u1ed9t IP li\u00ean k\u1ebft v\u1edbi n\u00f3.

IP spoofing l\u00e0: M\u1ed9t s\u1ed1 IP c\u00f3 m\u1ee5c \u0111\u00edch \u0111\u1ec3 x\u00e1c \u0111\u1ecbnh m\u1ed9t thi\u1ebft b\u1ecb duy nh\u1ea5t tr\u00ean th\u1ebf gi\u1edbi. V\u00ec v\u1eady tr\u00ean
m\u1ea1ng m\u1ed9t m\u00e1y ch\u1ee7 c\u00f3 th\u1ec3 cho ph\u00e9p m\u1ed9t thi\u1ebft b\u1ecb kh\u00e1c trao \u0111\u1ed5i d\u1eef li\u1ec7u qua l\u1ea1i m\u00e0 kh\u00f4ng c\u1ea7n ki\u1ec3m tra
m\u00e1y ch\u1ee7.
Tuy nhi\u00ean c\u00f3 th\u1ec3 thay \u0111\u1ed5i IP c\u1ee7a b\u1ea1n, ngh\u0129a l\u00e0 b\u1ea1n c\u00f3 th\u1ec3 g\u1edfi m\u1ed9t th\u00f4ng tin gi\u1ea3 \u0111\u1ebfn m\u1ed9t m\u00e1y kh\u00e1c m\u00e0
m\u00e1y \u0111\u00f3 s\u1ebd tin r\u1eb1ng th\u00f4ng tin nh\u1eadn \u0111\u01b0\u1ee3c xu\u1ea5t ph\u00e1t t\u1eeb m\u1ed9t m\u00e1y n\u00e0o \u0111\u00f3 (t\u1ea5t nhi\u00ean l\u00e0 kh\u00f4ng ph\u1ea3i m\u00e1y
c\u1ee7a b\u1ea1n). B\u1ea1n c\u00f3 th\u1ec3 v\u01b0\u1ee3t qua m\u00e1y ch\u1ee7 m\u00e0 kh\u00f4ng c\u1ea7n ph\u1ea3i c\u00f3 quy\u1ec1n \u0111i\u1ec1u khi\u1ebfn m\u00e1y ch\u1ee7 \u0111\u00f3. \u0110i\u1ec1u
tr\u1edf ng\u1ea1i l\u00e0 \u1edf ch\u1ed7 nh\u1eefng th\u00f4ng tin ph\u1ea3n h\u1ed3i t\u1eeb m\u00e1y ch\u1ee7 s\u1ebd \u0111\u01b0\u1ee3c g\u1edfi \u0111\u1ebfn thi\u1ebft b\u1ecb c\u00f3 IP m\u00e0 ch\u00fang ta \u0111\u00e3
gi\u1ea3 m\u1ea1o. V\u00ec v\u1eady c\u00f3 th\u1ec3 b\u1ea1n s\u1ebd kh\u00f4ng c\u00f3 \u0111\u01b0\u1ee3c s\u1ef1 ph\u1ea3n h\u1ed3i nh\u1eefng th\u00f4ng tin m\u00e0 m\u00ecnh mong mu\u1ed1n. C\u00f3
l\u1ebd \u0111i\u1ec1u duy nh\u1ea5t m\u00e0 spoof IP c\u00f3 hi\u1ec7u qu\u1ea3 l\u00e0 khi b\u1ea1n c\u1ea7n v\u01b0\u1ee3t qua firewall, tr\u1ed9m account v\u00e0 c\u1ea7n d\u1ea5u
th\u00f4ng tin c\u00e1 nh\u00e2n!

C\u1ed5ng \u1ea3o l\u00e0 g\u00ec? (Virtual Port)

C\u1ed5ng \u1ea3o l\u00e0 1 s\u1ed1 t\u1ef1 nhi\u00ean \u0111\u1ef1\u1ee3c g\u00f3i \u1edf trong TCP(Tranmission Control Protocol) v\u00e0 UDP(User
Diagram Protocol) header (hi\u1ec7n c\u00f3 l\u1ebd b\u1ea1n c\u00f2n xa l\u1ea1 v\u1edbi 2 t\u1eeb n\u00e0y, ch\u00fang t\u00f4i s\u1ebd \u0111\u1ec1 c\u1eadp sau). Nh\u01b0 m\u1ecdi
ngu\u00f2i \u0111\u00e3 bi\u1ebft, Windows c\u00f3 th\u1ec3 ch\u1ea1y nhi\u1ec1u ch\u01b0\u01a1ng tr\u00ecnh 1 l\u00fac, m\u1ed7i ch\u01b0\u01a1ng tr\u00ecnh n\u00e0y c\u00f3 1 c\u1ed5ng ri\u00eang
d\u00f9ng \u0111\u1ec3 truy\u1ec1n v\u00e0 nh\u1eadn d\u1eef li\u1ec7u. V\u00ed d\u1ee5 1 m\u00e1y c\u00f3 \u0111\u1ecba ch\u1ec9 IP l\u00e0 127.0.0.1 ch\u1ea1y WebServer, FTP_Server,
POP3 server, etc, nh\u1eefng d\u1ecbch v\u1ee5 n\u00e0y \u0111\u1ec1u \u0111u\u1ecdc ch\u1ea1y tr\u00ean 1 IP address l\u00e0 127.0.0.1, khi m\u1ed9t g\u00f3i tin
\u0111u\u1ecdc g\u1eedi \u0111\u1ebfn l\u00e0m th\u1ebf n\u00e0o m\u00e1y t\u00ednh c\u1ee7a ch\u00fang ta ph\u00e2n bi\u1ec7t \u0111\u01b0\u1ee3c g\u00f3i tin n\u00e0y \u0111i v\u00e0o d\u1ecbch v\u1ee5 n\u00e0o
WebServer hay FTP server hay SMTP? Ch\u00ednh v\u00ec th\u1ebf Port xu\u1ea5t hi\u1ec7n. M\u1ed7i d\u1ecbch v\u1ee5 c\u00f3 1 s\u1ed1 port m\u1eb7c
\u0111\u1ecbnh, v\u00ed d\u1ee5 FTP c\u00f3 port m\u1eb7c \u0111\u1ecbnh l\u00e0 21, web service c\u00f3 port m\u1eb7c \u0111\u1ecbnh l\u00e0 80, POP3 l\u00e0 110, SMTP l\u00e0
25 v\u00e2n v\u00e2n.... Ng\u01b0\u1eddi qu\u1ea3n tr\u1ecb m\u1ea1ng c\u00f3 th\u1ec3 thay \u0111\u1ed5i s\u1ed1 port m\u1eb7c \u0111\u1ecbnh n\u00e0y, n\u1ebfu b\u1ea1n ko bi\u1ebft s\u1ed1 port tr\u00ean
m\u1ed9t m\u00e1y ch\u1ee7, b\u1ea1n ko th\u1ec3 k\u1ebft n\u1ed1i v\u00e0o d\u1ecbch v\u1ee5 \u0111\u00f3 \u0111\u01b0\u1ee3c. Ch\u1eafc b\u1ea1n \u0111\u00e3 t\u1eebng nghe n\u00f3i \u0111\u1ebfn PORT
MAPPING nh\u01b0ng c\u00f3 l\u1ebd ch\u01b0a bi\u1ebft n\u00f3 l\u00e0 g\u00ec v\u00e0 ch\u1ee9c n\u0103ng th\u1ebf n\u00e0o. Port mapping th\u1ef1c ra \u0111\u01a1n gi\u1ea3n ch\u1ec9
l\u00e0 qu\u00e1 tr\u00ecnh chuy\u1ec3n \u0111\u1ed5i s\u1ed1 port m\u1eb7c \u0111\u1ecbnh c\u1ee7a m\u1ed9t d\u1ecbch v\u1ee5 n\u00e0o \u0111\u00f3 \u0111\u1ebfn 1 s\u1ed1 kh\u00e1c. V\u00ed d\u1ee5 Port m\u1eb7c \u0111\u1ecbnh
c\u1ee7a WebServer l\u00e0 80, nh\u01b0ng th\u1ec9nh tho\u1ea3ng c\u00f3 l\u1ebd b\u1ea1n v\u1eabn th\u1ea5y http://www.xxx.com:8080/ , 8080 \u1edf \u0111\u00e2y
ch\u00ednh l\u00e0 s\u1ed1 port c\u1ee7a host xxx nh\u01b0ng \u0111\u00e3 \u0111u\u1ee3c ngu\u00f2i qu\u1ea3n tr\u1ecb c\u1ee7a host n\u00e0y "map" t\u1eeb 80 th\u00e0nh 8080.

RFC l\u00e0 g\u00ec?: RFC l\u00e0 vi\u1ebft t\u1eaft c\u1ee7a Request For Comment, l\u00e0 t\u1eadp h\u1ee3p nh\u1eefng t\u00e0i li\u1ec7u v\u1ec1 ki\u1ebfn ngh\u1ecb, \u0111\u1ec1
xu\u1ea5t v\u00e0 nh\u1eefng l\u1eddi b\u00ecnh lu\u1eadn li\u00ean quan tr\u1ef1c ti\u1ebfp ho\u1eb7c gi\u00e1n ti\u1ebfp \u0111\u1ebfn c\u00f4ng ngh\u1ec7, nghi th\u1ee9c m\u1ea1ng
INTERNET. C\u00e1c t\u00e0i li\u1ec7u RFC \u0111\u1ef1\u1ee3c ch\u1ec9nh s\u1eeda, thay \u0111\u1ed5i \u0111\u1ebfn khi t\u1ea5t c\u1ea3 c\u00e1c k\u1ef9 s\u01b0 th\u00e0nh vi\u00ean c\u1ee7a
IETF(Internet Engineering Task Force) \u0111\u1ed3ng \u00fd v\u00e0 duy\u1ec7t, sau \u0111\u00f3 nh\u1eefng t\u00e0i li\u1ec7u n\u00e0y \u0111\u01b0\u1ee3c xu\u1ea5t b\u1ea3n v\u00e0
\u0111\u01b0\u1ee3c c\u00f4ng nh\u1eadn l\u00e0 1 chu\u1ea9n, nghi th\u1ee9c cho Internet. T\u00e0i li\u1ec7u RFC n\u1ed5i ti\u1ebfng v\u00e0 l\u00e0m t\u1ea1o \u0111\u01b0\u1ee3c ti\u1ebfng
vang l\u1edbn nh\u1ea5t l\u00e0 t\u00e0i li\u1ec7u RFC s\u1ed1 822 v\u1ec1 Internet Email b\u1edfi Dave Crocker.
Trang ch\u1ee7 c\u1ee7a RFC: http://www.ietf.org/rfc.html

DNS l\u00e0 g\u00ec? T\u1ea1i sao ta l\u1ea1i d\u00f9ng DNS, DNS l\u00e0m vi\u1ec7c ra sao, t\u00ean mi\u1ec1n l\u00e0 g\u00ec, etc...?: DNS l\u00e0 vi\u1ebft t\u1eaft c\u1ee7a
Domain Name System. M\u1ed9t m\u00e1y ch\u1ee7 DNS \u0111\u1ee3i k\u1ebft n\u1ed1i \u1edf c\u1ed5ng s\u1ed1 53, c\u00f3 ngh\u0129a l\u00e0 n\u1ebfu b\u1ea1n mu\u1ed1n k\u1ebft
n\u1ed1i v\u00e0o m\u00e1y ch\u1ee7 \u0111\u00f3, b\u1ea1n ph\u1ea3i k\u1ebft n\u1ed1i \u0111\u1ebfn c\u1ed5ng s\u1ed1 53. M\u00e1y ch\u1ee7 ch\u1ea1y DNS chuy\u1ec3n hostname b\u1eb1ng c\u00e1c
ch\u1eef c\u00e1i th\u00e0nh c\u00e1c ch\u1eef s\u1ed1 t\u01b0\u01a1ng \u1ee9ng v\u00e0 ng\u01b0\u1ee3c l\u1ea1i. V\u00ed d\u1ee5: 127.0.0.1 --> localhost v\u00e0 localhost---
>127.0.0.1
H\u1ec7 th\u1ed1ng "t\u00ean \u0111\u1ebfn \u0111\u1ecba ch\u1ec9" (name-to-address) \u0111\u01b0\u1ee3c d\u00f9ng tr\u01b0\u1edbc \u0111\u00e2y khi DNS ch\u01b0a ra \u0111\u1eddi, \u0111\u00e2y th\u1ef1c
ch\u1ea5t l\u00e0 1 file tr\u00ean server. C\u1ea5u t\u1ea1o c\u1ee7a 1 file n\u00e0y l\u00e0 1 table v\u1edbi "hostname" v\u00e0 \u0111\u1ecba ch\u1ec9 IP t\u01b0\u01a1ng \u1ee9ng, file
n\u00e0y \u0111\u01b0\u1ee3c c\u1eadp nh\u1eadt v\u00e0 b\u1ea3o qu\u1ea3n b\u1edfi Standford Reserch Institute Network Information Center (SRI-
NIC). V\u00e0i l\u1ea7n 1 tu\u1ea7n, t\u1ed5 ch\u1ee9c n\u00e0y l\u1ea1i c\u1eadp nh\u1eadt n\u1ed9i dung file n\u00e0y. Nh\u1eefng ngu\u00f2i qu\u1ea3n tr\u1ecb m\u1ea1ng n\u1ebfu c\u1ea7n
s\u1ebd download file n\u00e0y xu\u1ed1ng \u0111\u1ec3 d\u00f9ng cho local DNS. D\u1ea7n d\u1ea7n, s\u1ed1 l\u01b0\u1ee3ng c\u1ee7a c\u00e1c trang web tr\u00ean
internet ng\u00e0y c\u00e0ng nhi\u1ec1u. C\u00e1ch c\u0169 d\u00f9ng "name-to-address" tr\u1edf n\u00ean thi\u1ebfu hi\u1ec7u qu\u1ea3 v\u00e0 t\u1ed1n th\u1eddi gian --

> DNS ra \u0111\u1eddi. DNS ko ph\u1ee5 thu\u1ed9c v\u00e0o b\u1ea5t c\u1ee9 1 server ri\u00eang r\u1ebd n\u00e0o, DNS \u0111\u01b0\u1ee3c ph\u00e2n ph\u00e1t cho ngu\u00f2i
d\u00f9ng d\u01b0\u1edbi d\u1ea1ng 1 file c\u01a1 s\u1edf d\u1eef li\u1ec7u, file n\u00e0y \u0111\u01b0\u1ee3c gi\u0169 tr\u00ean kh\u1eafp c\u00e1c DNS server tr\u00ean to\u00e0n th\u1ebf gi\u1edbi.
M\u1ed7i DNS server \u0111\u1ec1u t\u1ef1 t\u00ecm ki\u1ebfm m\u1ed9t DNS cao h\u01a1n khi nh\u00e2n \u0111\u01b0\u1ee3c y\u00eau c\u1ea7u v\u1ec1 1 host n\u00e0o \u0111\u00f3 ko c\u00f3
trong c\u01a1 s\u1edf d\u1eef li\u1ec7u tr\u00ean m\u00e1y m\u00ecnh
M\u00e1y ch\u1ee7 DNS (DNS Server)
DNS server l\u00e0 1 m\u00e1y t\u00ednh b\u00ecnh th\u01b0\u1eddng c\u00f3 th\u1ec3 PC(/MAC) ch\u1ea1y UNIX ho\u1eb7c nh\u00e2n b\u1ea3n c\u1ee7a Unix
(Linux,etc..) v\u00e0 chay m\u1ed9t ch\u01b0\u01a1ng tr\u00ecnh qu\u1ea3n l\u00fd domain name g\u1ecdi l\u00e0 BIND (Berkely Internet Name
Domain). DNS server c\u00f3 th\u1ec3 ch\u1ea1y c\u00e1c h\u1ec7 \u0111i\u1ec1u h\u00e0nh kh\u00e1c nh\u01b0 Windows, MacOS nh\u01b0ng th\u01b0\u1eddng th\u00ec
*nix hay \u0111\u01b0\u1ee3c ch\u1ecdn h\u01a1n c\u1ea3 v\u00ec unix c\u00f3 t\u00ednh b\u1ea3o m\u1eadt cao h\u01a1n v\u00e0 cho ph\u00e9p l\u01b0\u1ee3ng truy c\u1eadp l\u1edbn h\u01a1n.
Ch\u01b0\u01a1ng tr\u00ecnh qu\u1ea3n l\u00fd DNS \u0111\u01b0\u1ee3c thi\u1ebft k\u1ebf chia l\u00e0m 2 ph\u1ea7n, ph\u1ea7n th\u1ee9 nh\u1ea5t l\u00e0 1 "daemon" nghe \u1edf c\u1ed5ng
53 \u0111\u1ee3i k\u1ebft n\u1ed1i. Ph\u1ea7n th\u1ee9 2 l\u00e0 \u0111\u1ec3 g\u1eedi y\u00eau c\u1ea7u l\u00ean m\u1ed9t DNS cao h\u01a1n n\u1ebfu local database ko c\u00f3 th\u00f4ng tin
m\u00e0 m\u00e1y kh\u00e1ch y\u00eau c\u1ea7u. Ph\u1ea7n th\u1ee9 nh\u1ea5t (daemon) tr\u1ea3 l\u1eddi tr\u00ecnh duy\u1ec7t web m\u1ed7i khi nh\u1eadn \u0111\u01b0\u1ee3c y\u00eau c\u1ea7u.
V\u00ed d\u1ee5, khi b\u1ea1n m\u1edf Internet Explorer v\u00e0 \u0111\u00e1nh v\u00e0o http://www.hackervn.org,/ tr\u00ecnh duy\u1ec7t c\u1ee7a b\u1ea1n s\u1ebd
g\u1eedi y\u00eau c\u1ea7u \u0111\u1ebfn 1 m\u00e1y ch\u1ee7 c\u00f3 d\u1ecbch v\u1ee5 DNS g\u1ea7n nh\u1ea5t \u0111\u1ec3 t\u00ecm IP c\u1ee7a http://www.hackervn.org/ v\u00ec tr\u00ecnh
duy\u1ec7t c\u1ee7a b\u1ea1n c\u1ea7n bi\u1ebft IP m\u00e1y ch\u1ee7 hi\u1ec7n \u0111ang l\u01b0u tr\u1eef trang web http://www.hackervn.org./ M\u00e1y ch\u1ee7
DNS \u1edf ISP c\u1ee7a b\u1ea1n s\u1ebd t\u00ecm trong c\u01a1 s\u1edf d\u1eef li\u1ec7u, n\u1ebfu ko t\u00ecm th\u1ea5y \u0111\u1ecba ch\u1ec9 IP cho
http://www.hackervn.org/ m\u00e1y ch\u1ee7 ch\u1ea1y DNS n\u00e0y s\u1ebd chuy\u1ec3n sang ph\u1ea7n th\u1ee9 2 l\u00e0 \u0111\u01b0a y\u00eau c\u1ea7u c\u1ee7a m\u00e1y
kh\u00e1ch \u0111\u1ebfn 1 m\u00e1y ch\u1ee7 DNS cao c\u1ea5p h\u01a1n, nhi\u1ec1u d\u1eef li\u1ec7u h\u01a1n \u0111\u1ec3 gi\u1ea3i quy\u1ebft.
\u0110\u1ecbnh d\u1ea1ng c\u00e2y c\u1ee7a DNS (tree formation)
M\u1ed9t khi DNS server ko th\u1ec3 t\u00ecm th\u1ea5y s\u1ed1 IP t\u01b0\u01a1ng \u1ee9ng cho 1 hostname trong c\u01a1 s\u1edf d\u1eef li\u1ec7u c\u1ee7a m\u00ecnh,
server \u0111\u00f3 s\u1ebd g\u1eedi y\u00eau c\u1ea7u \u0111\u1ebfn 1 DNS server kh\u00e1c cao h\u01a1n 1 b\u1eadc, v\u00e0 DNS server n\u00e0y s\u1ebd l\u1eb7p l\u1ea1i qu\u00e1
trinh m\u00e0 DNS server d\u01b0\u1edbi \u0111\u00e3 l\u00e0m \u0111\u1ec3 t\u00ecm \u0111\u1ecba ch\u1ec9 IP c\u1ee7a 1 host n\u00e0o \u0111\u00f3. N\u1ebfu DNS server n\u00e0y v\u1eabn ko
t\u00ecm th\u1ea5y th\u00ec y\u00eau c\u1ea7u s\u1ebd l\u1ea1i \u0111\u01b0\u1ee3c g\u1eedi \u0111\u1ebfn 1 DNS server kh\u00e1c cao h\u01a1n n\u1eefa v\u00e0 quy tr\u00ecnh n\u00e0y s\u1ebd \u0111\u01b0\u1ee3c
ti\u1ebfp t\u1ee5c cho \u0111\u1ebfn khi n\u00e0o ra k\u1ebft qu\u1ea3. K\u1ebft qu\u1ea3 c\u1ee7a y\u00eau c\u1ea7u n\u00e0y ch\u1ec9 c\u00f3 th\u1ec3 l\u00e0 "T\u00ecm Th\u1ea5y" ho\u1eb7c "Ko t\u00ecm
th\u1ea5y". :-) . \u0110\u1ebfn th\u1eddi \u0111i\u1ec3m n\u00e0y, ch\u1eafc b\u1ea1n \u0111\u00e3 h\u00ecnh dung ra \u0111\u01b0\u1ee3c c\u1ea5u tr\u00fac c\u1ee7a c\u00e1c DNS server nh\u01b0 th\u1ebf
n\u00e0o r\u1ed3i? N\u1ebfu ch\u01b0a, h\u00e3y nh\u00ecn v\u00e0o v\u00ed d\u1ee5 d\u01b0\u1edbi \u0111\u00e2y:
V\u00ed d\u1ee5 nh\u00e0 cung c\u1ea5p internet c\u1ee7a b\u1ea1n l\u00e0 FPT. Trang web \u0111\u1eb7t tr\u00ean m\u00e1y ch\u1ee7 c\u1ee7a FPT l\u00e0
http://www.fpt.vn./ M\u1eb7c \u0111\u1ecbnh, DNS server s\u1ebd l\u00e0 dns.fpt.vn. B\u00e2y gi\u1edd b\u1ea1n mu\u1ed1n truy c\u1eadp
http://www.hackervn.org./ dns.fpt.vn s\u1ebd t\u00ecm th\u00f4ng tin v\u1ec1 host n\u00e0y \u1edf trong c\u01a1 s\u1edf d\u1eef li\u1ec7u tr\u00ean m\u00e1y ch\u1ee7
DNS \u1edf FPT xem ai \u0111\u00f3 \u0111\u00e3 g\u1eedi th\u00f4ng tin truy c\u1eadp v\u1ec1 host n\u00e0y ch\u01b0a. N\u1ebfu \u0111i\u1ea1 ch\u1ec9 hackervn ko \u0111\u01b0\u1ee3c t\u00ecm
th\u1ea5y \u1edf "local database" ho\u1eb7c trong b\u1ed9 nh\u1edb, dns.fpt.vn s\u1ebd \u0111\u01b0a y\u00eau c\u1ea7u n\u00e0y \u0111\u1ebfn 1 DNS server cao c\u1ea5p
h\u01a1n, \u1edf \u0111\u00e2y s\u1ebd l\u00e0 "dns.vn". DNS server n\u00e0y qu\u1ea3n l\u00fd t\u1ea5t c\u1ea3 c\u00e1c trang c\u00f3 \u0111u\u00f4i .vn. Tuy nhi\u00ean server n\u00e0y
c\u00f3 th\u1ec3 ko c\u00f3 \u0111\u1ecba ch\u1ec9 n\u00e0y trong c\u01a1 s\u1edf d\u1eef li\u1ec7u nh\u01b0ng c\u00f3 th\u1ec3 c\u00f3 v\u00ec c\u00f3 th\u1ec3 ai \u0111\u00f3 \u0111\u00e3 truy c\u1eadp trang n\u00e0y.
N\u1ebfu \u1edf \u0111\u00e2y v\u1eabn ko t\u00ecm th\u1ea5y host/ip c\u1ea7n t\u00ecm, DNS server n\u00e0y cu\u1ed1i c\u00f9ng ph\u1ea3i g\u1eedi request \u0111\u1ebfn DNS
server l\u1edbn nh\u1ea5t qu\u1ea3n l\u00fd t\u1ea5t c\u1ea3 c\u00e1c domain g\u1ecdi l\u00e0 ".root". M\u00e1y ch\u1ee7 ch\u1ea1y .root DNS n\u00e0y l\u00e0 m\u1ed9t m\u00e1y
t\u00ednh r\u1ea5t m\u1ea1nh, v\u00e0 c\u01a1 s\u1edf d\u1eef li\u1ec7u c\u1ee7a .root n\u00e0y bao g\u1ed3m t\u1ea5t c\u1ea3 c\u00e1c lo\u1ea1i domain tr\u00ean to\u00e0n th\u1ebf gi\u1edbi. nh\u01b0
.com , .net , .mil, .co.uk, v\u00e2n v\u00e2n.....

Khi n\u00e0o v\u00e0 t\u1ea1i sao DNS b\u1ecb "b\u1ea1i li\u1ec7t" ?: K\u1ebft qu\u1ea3 t\u00ecm ki\u1ebfm 1 trang web c\u00f3 th\u1ec3 l\u00e2u hay nhanh tu\u1ef3 thu\u1ed9c
v\u00e0o nh\u00e0 cung c\u1ea5p d\u1ecbch v\u1ee5 internet c\u1ee7a b\u1ea1n c\u00f3 \u0111i\u1ea1 ch\u1ec9 IP v\u00e0 host \u0111\u00f3 ko trong c\u01a1 s\u1edf d\u1eef li\u1ec7u \u1edf tr\u00ean m\u00e1y
ch\u1ee7 DNS hay kh\u00f4ng. N\u1ebfu nh\u00e0 cung c\u1ea5p d\u1ecbch v\u1ee5 Internet c\u00f3 s\u1eb5n th\u00f4ng tin b\u1ea1n c\u1ea7n trong "local DNS
database" c\u00f3 l\u1ebd ch\u1ec9 v\u00e0i gi\u00e2y l\u00e0 b\u1ea1n c\u00f3 th\u1ec3 c\u00f3 th\u1ec3 xem \u0111\u1ef1oc trang web c\u00f2n n\u1ebfu ko th\u00ec s\u1ebd m\u1ea5t 1 kho\u1ea3ng
th\u1eddi gian l\u00e2u h\u01a1n, t\u1ed3i t\u1ec7 nh\u1ea5t l\u00e0 khi b\u1ea1n nh\u1eadn \u0111\u1ef1\u1ee3c th\u00f4ng b\u00e1o "Page can not be displayed", c\u00f3 ngh\u0129a
l\u00e0 1 l\u00e0 trang web \u0111\u00f3 ko t\u1ed3n t\u1ea1i ho\u1eb7c l\u00e0 do qu\u00e1 tr\u00ecnh "y\u00eau c\u1ea7u" DNS qu\u00e1 l\u00e2u n\u00ean browser c\u1ee7a b\u1ea1n
"time out" v\u00e0 "gi\u1ebft ch\u1ebft" k\u1ebft n\u1ed1i. Tuy nhi\u00ean b\u1ea1n c\u00f3 th\u1ec3 Refresh l\u1ea1i tr\u00ecnh duy\u1ec7t, n\u1ebfu l\u1ea7n tr\u01b0\u1edbc l\u00e0 do
"time out" th\u00ec l\u1ea7n n\u00e0y b\u1ea1n s\u1ebd nh\u1eadn \u0111\u1ef1oc trang web \u0111\u00f3 nhanh h\u01a1n v\u00ec m\u00e1y ch\u1ee7 DNS c\u1ee7a nh\u00e0 cung c\u1ea5p
d\u1ecbch v\u1ee5 Internet c\u1ee7a b\u1ea1n \u0111\u00e3 c\u1eadp nh\u1eadt \u0111\u1ef1oc trang \u0111\u00f3 trong l\u1ea7n y\u00eau c\u1ea7u tr\u01b0\u1edbc khi b\u1ea1n g\u1eedi \u0111\u1ebfn.

Kh\u00e1i ni\u1ec7m v\u1ec1 Ping v\u00e0 c\u00e1ch ho\u1ea1t \u0111\u1ed9ng?: Ping l\u00e0 1 kh\u00e1i ni\u1ec7m r\u00e2t \u0111\u01a1n gi\u1ea3n tuy nhi\u00ean r\u1ea5t h\u1eefu \u00edch cho
vi\u1ec7c ch\u1ea9n \u0111o\u00e1n m\u1ea1ng. Ti\u1ec3u s\u1eed c\u1ee7a t\u1eeb "ping" nh\u01b0 sau: Ping l\u00e0 ti\u1ebfng \u0111\u1ed9ng vang ra khi 1 t\u00e0u ng\u1ea7m
mu\u1ed1n bi\u1ebft c\u00f3 1 v\u1eadt th\u1ec3 kh\u00e1c \u1edf g\u1ea7n m\u00ecnh hay ko, n\u1ebfu c\u00f3 1 v\u1eadt th\u1ec3 n\u00e0o \u0111\u00f3 g\u1ea7n t\u00e0u ng\u1ea7m ti\u1ebfng s\u00f3ng \u00e2m

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