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The University of Melbourne - Minerals

The University of Melbourne - Minerals

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03/18/2014

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\ue000\ue000
Geology (Engineering Course)
\ue000Minerals

This page includes the outline text from the classroom
PowerPoint presentation, together with selected
graphics from that presentation. The graphics will
appear when the title hotlink is activated.

A copy of the classroom presentation, in .pdf format,
can be downloaded fromhere.
MG Chapter 2.1 is a primary reference; W scatters mineral information through
several sections; also see basic Geology textbooks.
There are several Web sites related to mineralogy, including theMineralogy
Museum at Ecole des Mines de Paris and the Clausthal Institute of Mineralogy.
Minerals in the general sense are basic inputs to modern society, and the
Mineral Council of Australia is concerned about the lack of science and
engineering graduates with interests in this general area - and is spending
money to do something about it.
Identification| Mineral Examples| Top
Earth - Chemical Composition (MG Chapter 2)
\ue000Dominated by Fe, O, Si, Mg (93%)
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The University of Melbourne - Minerals
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but
\ue000Crustal Chemistry differs
Earth - Crustal Composition
\ue000Processes Creating Crust enrich it in lighter, larger cations
so
\ue000Crust chemistry dominated by O, Si (74%)
Important Elements
Crust Composition
\ue000Na, K, Ca (Alkaline elements) are enriched

\ue001Enrichment by differentiation
\ue000Fe, Mg relatively abundant in asthenosphere, and in oceanic crust
\ue000O, Si are still (more) dominant, however

Minerals (MG 2.1.1)
\ue000Elements occur in
"Distinct substances with definite atomic configuration and physico-
chemical properties"
minerals
Minerals
\ue000minerals are
"Natural solids with a definite chemical composition and ordered atomic
arrangement"
\ue000These solids are almost always crystals.
Example: Fluorite Crystals and the crystal structure
Silicates
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\ue000Most common minerals are compounds of

O with Si
and Al Fe Mg
Ca Na K

\ue000Over 25% of ~2000 minerals are Silicates
\ue000Over 90% of Earth's Crust is Silicate
Earth Materials
Rocks

\ue000Rocks are collections of one or more minerals
\ue000Behaviour of rock under stress depends on mineral composition
\ue000Identification of rock requires identification of minerals

See examples in the UBC Image Gallery- enter rock names you might already
know.
(Unfortunately, this no longer seems to be an open site - June 2001.)
Rock-Forming Minerals

Clay
Quartz
Calcite
Olivine
Dolomite
Pyroxene
Amphibole
Biotite, Muscovite Micas
Orthoclase, Plagioclase Feldspars

Other Minerals

\ue000Most important areOxides, as general class
\ue000Carbonates are not restricted to calcite and dolomite
\ue000Sulphides are often significant in, or as, ores

Alternative Division
\ue000Essential minerals - necessary for classification of rock
\ue000Accessory minerals - don't affect rock classification, but may be
important anyway. This term is more frequently used than "esential".
Definitions| Mineral Examples| Top
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