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Table Of Contents

1An Introduction to DHCP
An Introduction to DHCP
Configuring Devices on a Network
IP Address Allocation
Configuration Information
Configuring Network Devices
Moving Devices to Different Network Segments
Moving or Adding Network Services
Renumbering the Network
Reclaiming Disused IP Addresses
A First Attempt at Automating Device Configuration
The Benefits of DHCP
Availability of DHCP Clients
DHCP on Large Networks
Mobility
DHCP on Small Networks
Assigning IP Addresses Using DHCP
DHCP Server as Agent
Address Leasing
Address Reclamation with DHCP
Renumbering with DHCP
Describing Network Services with DHCP
Moving or Adding Network Services with DHCP
Perceived Problems of DHCP
Excess Broadcast Traffic
Server Load
DHCP Reliability
When Not to Use DHCP
Address Allocation Policies
Dynamic Allocation
Hybrid Allocation Policies
Summary
•Setting Up the GSI Network
An Example of DHCP in Operation
Setting Up the GSI Network
Using DHCP to Configure Computers
Using DHCP to Configure Computers 21
Using the DHCP Server to Obtain a New IP Address
Restarting desktop1
Moving desktop1to a New Network Segment
Retiring desktop1from Service
Leases on IP Addresses in DHCP
Two Alternative Mechanisms to Leasing
Benefits of DHCP Leases
Configuring the DHCP Server
Specifying the Basic Network Architecture
Subnet Declarations
Subnet Address Allocation
Required Configuration Parameters
Configuration Options
Specifying Leases
Lease Durations
GSI Subnet Leases
Other DHCP Options
Subnet Options
Global Values for Options
Extending a Lease and Moving Between Subnets
Extending a GSI Lease
Moving Between GSI Subnets
Other Configuration Information
•The TCP/IP Protocol Suite
Configuring TCP/IP Stacks
The TCP/IP Protocol Suite
The Physical Layer
The Data Link Layer
Address Translation
The Internet Layer
Network (IP) Addresses
Subnetting
Datagram Delivery
Multiple IP Networks on a Network Segment
Multicast
Other Internet-Layer Parameters
Summary of IP Software Parameters
The Transport Layer
The Application Layer
The Client/Server Model
DHCP Client/Server Model
DHCP Goals and Design Decisions
Administrative Control, Correctness, and Reliability
New Functions in DHCP
TheDNS server Option
Therequested IP address Option
Theend Option
Examples of Message Formats
The DHCPREQUESTMessage Format
TheDHCPACKMessage Format
Design Constraints
•Using UDP for DHCP
Transmitting DHCP Messages
Using UDP for DHCP
Broadcast Messages
Unicast Messages
Server Response Messages
Using Broadcast for Delivery to Clients
Using the Broadcast Flag
Relay Agents
Relay Agent Options
Forwarding Destinations
Response Delivery
Multiple Relay Agents
Relay Agent Implementation
Reliable Delivery of DHCP Messages
Avoiding Message Collisions
Transaction IDs
Other Transmission Methods
DHCPREQUESTMessages
DHCPINFORM Messages
DHCPRELEASE Messages
DHCPFORCERENEW Messages
DHCPLEASEQUERY Messages
Authenticated DHCP Messages
Protocol Design
Authentication Token Protocol”)
The Authentication Token Protocol
The Delayed Authentication Protocol
DHCP Message Exchanges
Client States
Obtaining an Initial Configuration
Confirming an IP Address When Restarting
Extending a Lease
Extending a Lease from a Different Server
When a Lease Expires
Moving to a New Network
Working with Multiple Servers
Obtaining an Initial Address
Restarting
Broadcasting to Extend a Lease
Other Message Exchanges
Terminating a Lease
Updating a Client’s Configuration
DHCP Options
DHCP-Specific Options
DHCP message type
Data: vendor class identifier
Data: vendor-specific information
maximum DHCP message size
TFTP server name
Host Configuration Parameters Options
TCP/IP Stack Configuration Parameters
IP Layer Parameters for the Client
Options Defining IP Layer Parameters for a Specific Interface
Link Layer Parameters Options
TCP Parameters Options
Service Parameter Options
LPR server
Impress server
RLP server
SMTP server
POP server
NTP server
WWW server
NNTP server
IRC server
X Window System Options
NIS and NIS+ Options
NetBIOS over TCP/IP Options
StreetTalk Options
NDS Options
NetWare/IP Options
NetWare/IP Suboptions
SLP Options
subnet selection
authentication
relay agent information
Data: relay agent information
Failover Protocol Operation
Failover Protocol Overview
Database Synchronization
Address Allocation Constraints
Communication Between Failover Peers
Lease Handling with Failover
IP Address Binding States
Assigning Lease Durations with Failover
Failover Operational States
Operation in the COMMUNICATIONS-INTERRUPTEDState
Operation in the PARTNER-DOWNState
Operation in the STARTUPState
Operation in the RECOVERState
Operation in the POTENTIAL-CONFLICTState
Operation in the CONFLICT-DONE State
Operation in the RESOLUTION-INTERRUPTEDState
Binding Update Conflicts
Pool Rebalancing
Complex Failover Configurations
•The Domain Name System
DHCP–DNS Interaction
The Domain Name System
DHCP and DNS
Dynamic Updates to the DNS Database
Dynamic Updates and DHCP
DHCP Client DNS Name Selection
Responsibility for Performing DNS Updates
DHCP Client Name Collision
Lease Expiration
Client Relocation
Client Name Change
DNS Dynamic Update Security Issues
How the DHCP Server Updates the DNS
•Address Allocation Strategy
Theory of the Operation of a DHCP Server
Address Allocation Strategy
Address Assignment
Allocation and Renewal in Response to a DHCPREQUEST Message
Lease Extensions
Address Use Denied
DNS Updates
DHCP Message Handling
DHCPDECLINEMessage Handling
DHCPRELEASEMessage Handling
DHCPINFORMMessage Handling
DHCPLEASEQUERYMessage Handling
Abandoned Lease Address Reclamation
The Microsoft DHCP Server
Installing the Microsoft DHCP Service
Managing DHCP Servers
Configuring DHCP Servers
Configuring Scopes
Configuring Superscopes
Adding a Scope to an Existing Superscope
Configuring Reservations
Configuring Options
Client Options
Vendor-Specific Options
User Class Options
Defining New Options
Controlling the Windows DHCP Server
Activating Scope
Starting the DHCP Server Automatically and Manually
Uninstalling the DHCP Service
•Obtaining the ISC DHCP Server
The ISC DHCP Server
Obtaining the ISC DHCP Server
Support for the ISC DHCP Server
Installing the ISC DHCP Distribution
Configuring System Logging for the ISC DHCP Distribution
Prerequisites to Operation of the ISC DHCP Server
The Lease Database
The Configuration File
Configuring the ISC DHCP Server
Server Control Parameters
Client Options and Parameters
Configuring Connections to Other Services
Network Configuration Information
Scopes
IP Address Assignments
Invoking the ISC DHCP Server
Command-Line Arguments
Specifying Interfaces
Server Operation
Starting the Server Automatically
Updating the Server Configuration
Modifying the Lease Database
RPM Packages for DHCP
Configuring a DHCP Server
Configuring a DHCP Server to Be Authoritative
Configuring an Individual Subnet
Address Allocation
Client Configuration Information
A Complete Subnet Configuration
Supporting Multiple Network Segments
Multiple Network Interfaces
Using DHCP Relay Agents
Configuring Multiple IP Subnets on Each Network Segment
Address Allocation on Shared Networks
Option Scoping with Shared Networks
Avoiding Routing on a Shared-Network Segment
Pitfalls of Shared-Network Configurations
•Identifying Clients
Client Identification and Fixed-Address Allocation
Identifying Clients
Using the dhcp-client-identifierOption
Using the Link-Layer Address as an Identifier
How the DHCP Server Identifies Clients
Specifying Client Identification in a DHCP Server
Client Identification Name Collisions
Static Allocation
Mixing Static and Dynamic Allocation
Moving a Client from Dynamic to Static Address Allocation
Converting a DHCP Server from Static to Dynamic Allocation
Automatic Allocation
Access Control
Setting Up a Reliable DHCP Service
Determining Your Level of DHCP Service Reliability
The Effects of Loss of Service
Specific Failures in DHCP Service
Server Failures
Planned Outages
Resource Starvation
Network Infrastructure Failures
Improving Reliability by Using Long Leases
Setting Up a Secondary DHCP Server
Dynamic Address Allocation
Static Address Allocation
Hybrid Allocation Models
Problems with Setting Up Redundant Servers
Address Consistency Rule Violations
Loss of Address While in Use
Dynamic Allocation Pool Starvation
Duplicate Responses from Redundant Servers
•Types of Failover Relationships
Configuring a Failover Server
Types of Failover Relationships
Cooperating Partners Relationship
The Cooperating Partners Relationship
The Failover Relationship
The Backing Store Relationship
Setting Up Failover Service for the First Time
Configuring the ISC DHCP Server to Do Failover
Merging Configuration Files
Configuring the Cooperating Partners Relationship
Operating a Failover Pair
Starting the Servers for the First Time
Normal Operations
Operational Problems
Issues Specific to the ISC DHCP Failover Implementation
The Version of ISC Software to Use
Ad hoc DNS Updates
Known Problems with the ISC DHCP Server and Failover
Tuning a DHCP Service
Network Device Configuration and Address Assignment Strategies
Manual Configuration
Strategies for Supporting BOOTP Devices
Configuring Lease Lengths
Examples of Long and Short Lease Times
One Lease per Client
Tradeoffs Between Number of Clients and Lease Length
The Effect of Lease Length on DHCP Server Load
The Effect of Lease Length on Reliability
DHCP Leases with DDNS Updates
DHCP Renew Time
Customizing Lease Durations
Configuring the Lease Length on the DHCP Server
Monitoring the Server
Gathering and Using Traffic Statistics
Verifying Server Configuration
DHCP Address Pool Depletion
Programmable DHCP Server Customization
Differentiating Between Clients
Conditional Statements
Client Classing
Controlling Address Allocation
Pool-Based Address Allocation
Class-Based Address Allocation
Automatic Generation of Subclasses
Differentiation Between Similar Sets of Subclasses
Client Class Options
Theuser classOption
Thevendor class identifier Option
The vendor-specific informationOption
Lease Events
Lease Variables
•The Theory of DHCP Client Operation
DHCP Clients
The Theory of DHCP Client Operation
Getting an IP Address
When the Client Fails to Get an Address
Using an IP Address After It Is Acquired
Maintaining a Lease on an IP Address
When the Lease Expires
More Than One IP Address Per Interface
The Microsoft DHCP Client
Installing and Enabling the Microsoft DHCP Client
The Windows DHCP Client User Interface
Behavior Specific to the Microsoft DHCP Client
The dhcpcd DHCP Client
The pump DHCP Client
The ISC DHCP Client
ISC DHCP Client Installation
ISC DHCP Client Operation
ISC DHCP Client Configuration
Microsoft DHCP Client Emulation
ISC DHCP Client Network Setup Script Customization
ISC DHCP Client Debugging
Controlling the ISC DHCP Client
The Apple MacOS X DHCP Client
Setting Up DHCP in a Small Office
Small Office Network Architectures
IP Address Translation 383
IP Address Translation
Running a DHCP Server and Client on the Same Computer
Running the DHCP Server and Client on Different Interfaces
Running the DHCP Client and Server on the Same Interface
Running the DHCP Server on Your Firewall
Filtering Rules
Server Identifiers
Problems with DSL Routers
Configuring an Integrated Router/Server
Configuring a WAN Port
Configuring a LAN Port and Small Network Services
Configuring the DHCP Client to Do Updates
Configuring the DNS Server for Client Updates
Updating the Client’s ARecord from a Script
DNS Record Removal
The Threat Model for Dangling ARecords
Time to Live on Client ARecords
Debugging Problems with DNS Updates
•The Debugging Process
Debugging Problems with DHCP
The Debugging Process
•Discovering that you have a problem
Discovering That You Have a Problem
Determining What the Problem Is
Solving the Problem
Connectivity Problems
Local Connectivity
Relay Agent Connectivity
Server Connectivity
When the Server Does Not Respond
No Available IP Addresses
Server Not Configured for Client’s Network Segment
BOOTP Clients and DHCP Servers
Server DHCPNAKMessage Behavior
The Server Sends DHCPNAKMessage When Inappropriate
Rogue DHCP Servers
Configuration Drift Between Cooperating DHCP Servers
Server Fails to Send DHCPNAKMessages When Appropriate
Incorrect Option Values
The Uniqueness of Client Identifiers
Dual-Boot Client Systems
Duplicate IP Addresses
When a Client Fails to Get a Reserved IP Address
DHCP for IPv6
An Introduction to IPv6
IPv6 Addressing
IPv6 Auto-Configuration
Fragmentation and Path MTU Discovery
The Motivations for DHCPv6
The Design of DHCPv6
Differences Between DHCPv6 and DHCPv4
Client/Server Transactions in DHCPv6
Interaction with IPv6 Auto-Configuration
AMicrosoft DHCP Server Examples
Examples 3.1, 3.2, 3.3, and 3.4
Examples 3.5 and 3.6
Example 3.7
Examples 3.8 and 3.9
Example 3.10
Example 3.11
Examples 12.1 and 12.2
Example 13.1
Examples 14.1 through 14.6
Example 14.7
Example 14.8
Example 14.9
Examples 14.10 and 14.11
Example 14.12
Example 14.13
Example 14.14
Examples 14.15 through 14.17
Examples 15.1 and 15.2
Examples 15.3 through 15.7
Example 15.8
Example 15.9
Example 15.10
Examples 15.11 and 15.12
Example 15.13
Example 15.14
Example 15.15
Example 15.16
Example 15.17
Example 15.18
Example 15.19
Example 16.1 and 16.2
Example 16.3
Example 16.4
Example 16.5
Example 16.6
Examples 16.7 and 16.8
Examples 16.9, 16.10, and 16.11
Example 17.1
Example 18.1 through 18.9
Example 19.1
Examples 20.1 through 20.14
Example 22.1
Example 22.2
Example 22.3
Example 22.4
Examples 22.5 through 22.7
Examples in Appendixes
ISC DHCP Server Configuration File Reference
How to Use This Appendix
File Organization
The shared-network Declaration
The subnet Declaration
Therange Declaration
Thehost Declaration
The hardware Declaration
The dhcp-client-identifier option Statement
Thefixed-address Declaration
Thepool Declaration
Theknown clients Permit
Theunknown clients Permit
Themembers of Permit
Thedynamic bootp clients Permit
Theall clients Permit
Theclass Declaration
Thematch if Statement
Thematch Statement
Thespawn with Statement
Thelease limit Statement
Thesubclass Declaration
Thegroup Declaration
Theoption space Declaration
The include Directive
The key Declaration
Thezone Declaration
Thefailover peer Declaration
The primary Statement
The secondary Statement
The address Statement
The peer address Statement
The port Statement
The peer port Statement
The max-response-delay Statement
The max-unacked-updates Statement
The mclt Statement
The hba and split Statements
Theload balance max secs Statement
Programming Statements
Theswitch Statement
The on Statement
The log Statement
The set Statement
The unset Statement
Expressions
Indeterminate Operators
Boolean Operators
Data Operators
Numeric Operators
DNS Operators
Parameter Statements
Thedefault-lease-time Statement
Themax-lease-time Statement
Themin-lease-time Statement
The min-secs Statement
The dynamic-bootp-lease-cutoff Statement
The dynamic-bootp-lease-length Statement
The get-lease-hostnames Statement
The authoritative Statement
The always-reply-rfc1048 Statement
The use-lease-addr-for-default-route Statement
The server-identifier Statement
The vendor-option-space Statement
The site-option-space Statement
The always-broadcast Statement
The ddns-domainname Statement
The ddns-hostname Statement
The ddns-rev-domainname Statement
The lease-file-name Statement
The pid-file-name Statement
The ddns-updates Statement
The omapi-port Statement
The omapi-key Statement
The stash-agent-options Statement
The ddns-ttl Statement
The update-optimization Statement
The ping-checkStatement
The update-static-leasesStatement
The log-facilityStatement
Statements That Define Values to Send to Clients
The filename Statement
The server-name Statement
The next-server Statement
The option Statement
Theoption Definition
Theip-address Type
Thetext Type
Arrays
Records
The Standard DHCP Options
The DHCP Message Format
The fixed-format Section
The htype Field
The variable-format Section
DHCP Options Summary
Additional Reading
DHCP Server and Operating System Versions
Choosing a DHCP Server
Operating System Platforms
User Interface
Database Formats
Support for BOOTP Clients
ISC DHCP Server Operating System Dependencies
Problems with the 255.255.255.255 Broadcast Address
Linux Difficulties
HP-UX Difficulties
Solaris Difficulties
Glossary
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The DHCP Handbook

The DHCP Handbook

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Published by: kishoreonline8 on Nov 16, 2011
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