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8086 Arch

8086 Arch

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Published by: api-3848496 on Oct 18, 2008
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03/18/2014

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Introduction To 8086 :
The main limitations of the 8 bit microprocessorswere their low speed of execution,low memory addressing capability,limited number of generalpurpose registers&a less powerful instruction set.  All these limitations of the 8 bit microprocessorstempted the designers to go for more powerfulprocessors in terms of advanced architecture ,more processing capability and a more powerfulinstruction set. 8086 was a result of suchdevelopment design efforts.
Intel 8086 is a 16-bit µp that is intended to be usedas CPU in microcomputer 
8086 has 16-bit data bus,so it can read data fromor write data to memory and ports either 16 bits or 8 bits at a time.
 
The 8086 has 20-bit address bus,soit can addressany one of 2
20
(1048576) memory locations. Each of the 1048576 memory locations of 8086 represents abyte wide location. Sixteen bit words will be stored intwo consecutive locations.If the first byte of the wordis at an ODD address the 8086 will read the first bytewith one bus operation & second byte with another bus operation. And if the first byte of a word is at anEVEN address the 8086 can read the entire word inone operation.
 
8086 Internal Architecture :
The 8086 CPU is divided into two independentfunctional units so that dividing the workbetween these two units speed up processing.These functional units are as follows:
BIU (Bus Interface Unit)
EU (The Execution Unit)

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