World Applied Sciences Journal 3 (4): 597-602, 2008ISSN 1818-4952© IDOSI Publications, 2008
Dr. Ali Mansourian, Faculty of Geodesy and Geomatics Engineering, K.N. Toosi University of Technology, Tehran, Iran
Expanding SDI Hierarchy for Countries with Non-federated System: A Case Study of Iran
Mohammad Javad Valadan Zoej
Faculty of Geodesy and Geomatics Engineering, K.N. Toosi University of Technology, Tehran, Iran
The need to geo-spatial data in different applications particularly for knowledge-basedsustainable development is considerable. However, various problems encountered with production,dissemination and accessing geo-spatial data makes users to face with many difficulties when intending touse them. Spatial Data Infrastructure (SDI) is introduced as a solution to these problems. Success of an SDIstrongly depends on partnership among different parties at different administrative levels involved in SDIdevelopment, which makes SDI to have a complex nature. The general SDI Hierarchy model tries tosimplify the complexity of SDI development. However, it is essential to expand this model in order to beadopted for specific initiatives at the implementation phase. This paper proposes expansion of SDIHierarchy for Iran as a country with non-federated system. It also describes the concept and importance of Organizational SDI (OSDI) in developing National SDI (NSDI).
Spatial Data Infrastructure (SDI)
It has been estimated that over 80% of governmental data has spatial nature, component,location or basin [1-3]. It has been also observed that alarge majority of all decisions depend on spatialsituation or have spatial effects . The role of spatialinformation to generate knowledge for achievingdecision-making for complex problems has beenincreasingly recognized. Such situation made emergingGeospatial Information Science as a new field of studyin early 1990s that is currently underway .Spatial data is vital for promotion of economicdevelopment, improvement of our stewardship of natural resources and protection of the environment .Currently, in most of the developed courtiers it iswidely acknowledged that spatial data is a part of thenational infrastructure for which extensive efforts aremade . Today, more and more people are gainingaccess to spatial data and using it in business processesand systems to assist decision-making within andbetween many organizations . However, with such arole of spatial data in everyday business and decisions,there are substantial problems with collection,dissemination, access and usage of these data.Duplication of efforts in spatial data collection,unawareness of data availability, institutional andmilitary-type security barriers for dissemination orexchange of data and heterogeneity of systems can benamed as some of the general problems with spatialdata. Spatial Data Infrastructure (SDI) is an initiativeintends to resolve these problems by creating anappropriate partnership environment for data collection,dissemination, access and usage.With this in mind, during the last decade differentnations have had extensive efforts on developing theirown SDIs (particularly at the national level) as part of their infrastructural activities. However, none of theseinitiatives has reported complete implementation of anSDI. It is actually due to complex nature of SDI anddifferent problems associated with SDI implementation.As a result, in the context of different research activitiesand based on different SDIs experiences, it has beentried to identify the problems with SDI developmentand then to develop different models for resolvingthem.In this paper, the general SDI model and the SDIHierarchy model will be reviewed. Then, based on acase study in Iran, the SDI Hierarchy model will beexpanded. It will be depicted that the expanded modelcan better clarify required basic arrangements at eachlevel of hierarchy and their relationships for developingSDIs.
MATERIALS AND METHODSSDI components and nature:
SDI can be defined asinitiative intent to create an environment in which allstakeholders can cooperate with each other and interactwith technology to better achieve their objectives at