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Ulupo CRM Flyer-read

Ulupo CRM Flyer-read

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Published by Sam Ohu Gon III
draft of a brochure describing the cultural landscape plan for Ulupō heiau in Kailau, Hawaiʻi.
draft of a brochure describing the cultural landscape plan for Ulupō heiau in Kailau, Hawaiʻi.

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Published by: Sam Ohu Gon III on Nov 16, 2011
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11/16/2011

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-2-
R G & Obcv 
 The primary goal o restoring the cultural landscape aroundUlupō Heiau is to place the
heiau
within a physical settingthat is more historically appropriate to the time o itsconstruction and use. Cultural practitioners will be integralin the restoration process which will promote learning andperpetuation o the culture. In turn, the restoration willgive visitors the opportunity to envision the
heiau
within itscultural context.
GOAL #1:
Preserve Ulupō Heiau complex within a historicalsetting and cultural landscape that is representative o thepre-contact settlement and subsistence pattern o the Kailua
ahupua‘a
.
•Graduallyremovealienandnon-nativevegetationand
replace with culturally appropriate native and Polynesian-introduced species reective o the cultural landscape.
•SelectatimeperiodcircaA.D.1700toconveythe
interpretive themes, promote a sense o place, and createan understanding o the cultural signicance o UlupōHeiau.
•Incorporatescenicviewswithculturalsignicanceintothe
landscape planning.
GOAL #2:
Perpetuate the cultural traditions associated withUlupō Heiau and the Kailua
ahupua‘a
by providing plantsor cultural demonstrations and or use by practitioners tocontinue cultural traditions related to the use o plants.
•Developaplantpalettewitharangeofbothnative
Hawaiian plants and Polynesian-introduced plants thatare appropriate to this area and environment. The choiceo plants should also reect those needed to conductappropriate cultural programs.
•Promote
lo‘i kalo
that perpetuatearming traditions and provide
kalo
or cultural programs.
GOAL #3:
Enhance the visitorexperience and promoteunderstanding and respect byplacing Ulupō Heiau withina culturally and historicallyappropriate setting.
•Promoteapreferredvisitor
pattern by incorporating pathsand access routes into thecultural landscape plan.
•Promotevisitorunderstanding
and respect by developinginterpretive devices as part o thecultural landscape plan.
•Respectthecommunitysetting
but also minimize the impacts o modern development.
Ohp & Mmnt 
UlupōHeiau,approximately1.5acre,wastransferredfromthe TerritorialBoardofAgricultureandForestrytoTerritorialParksin1954.Intheearly1960s,StateParksandtheadjacentlandowner,Kāne‘oheRanch,partnered
to construct improvements at the
heiau
such as
thepavedroadwaysandparkinglot,thestonewalkwayatopthe
heiau
and the stone pavingaround the springs. Ulupō Heiau was listed on
theNationalRegisterofHistoricPlacesin1972andtheHawai‘iRegisterin1981.UlupōHeiauandportionsoftheKūkanono
slope on the eastern side o Kawainui, a
totalof28acres,weredesignatedUlupōHeiauStateHistoricalPark(SHP)in2000.Asahistoricalpark,themissionistoprotect
the signicant cultural sites, especiallyUlupo Heiau, and preserve the open space,
viewplanes,andculturallandscape.Adjacent
to Ulupō Heiau on the north and east is the
WindwardYMCA(9acres)andabuttingtheparkonthewestisKawainuiMarsh,awildlifesanctuaryunderthejurisdictionofDLNR,DivisionofForestryandWildlife.ImagineKawainuiover1,000yearsagoasPolynesiancanoessailintoKailuaBay.Formerlyanembayment,Kawainui
is now a lagoon created by a massive sand bar across thebay. Collecting in this pond is a mix o ocean water and anabundance o reshwater water carried rom the Ko‘olau
MountainsbyMaunawiliandKahanaikiStreams.Surrounding
the waters o Kawainui are orests o 
loulu
palm with a varietyo lowland trees and shrubs. This was truly an inviting placein which to settle, clear the land or
lo‘i kalo
(taroelds),andstockthepondwithsh.Asthesocial-religious-politicalsystemofHawai‘ibecame
more stratied and complex, the large
heiau
are constructed.
 Thesestackedrockplatformsandwalledenclosuresarebuiltonpromontoriesoeringpanoramicviews.SuchisthecasewithUlupōHeiauthatwasbuiltontheslopesofKūkanonooverlookingKawainuiandtheKailua
ahupua‘a
. The historical setting and cultural landscape o Ulupō Heiauhave been altered by post-contact land uses such as rice
farming,truckfarming,ranching,residentialdevelopment,
and the transormation o Kawainui to a marsh. However,
remainingelementssuchastherockwallterraces,springs,
and grinding stones are important clues about the culturallandscape, human occupation, and history o Kawainui.
ACulturalResourcesManagementandLandscapePlanhas
been developed to direct the restoration o an historically
accurateandculturallyappropriatelandscapeonthe7acressurroundingUlupōHeiau.Thegoalsofthe5-yearplanare:1)developa5-yearconceptualsiteplanwithcommunity
participation;
2)integrateaHawaiianculturalprotocolpolicy;3)developaculturalresourcemanagementplanto
document, protect, and revitalize the cultural resources;
4)developaculturallandscapeandethnobotanical
restoration plan; and
5)developaneducational/interpretiveprogramtosharethe
site with visitors, promote understanding, and encouragerespect and stewardship.
Communityparticipationinthisplanningprocesstookplace
through several visioning meetings. These meetings were an
opportunityforstakeholderstocommunicatedesires,goals
and commitment to revitalize Ulupō Heiau as a living culturalresource or the benet o the greater Hawaiian culturalcommunity, as well as the public.
Uō Hu Cl R Mmnt & Lde P 
Rg a Cl Lde t Kn 
 
-3-
Hisil & Cl Ovvw 
SituatedinthecenteroftheformerKo‘olauvolcano,
Kawainui was once an embayment as the waters o KailuaBay extended ar inland. Over time, a sand bar ormedacross Kailua Bay converting the waters to a lagoon that
collectedthefreshwaterfromtheMaunawiliwatershed.A
orest o 
loulu
palmsgrewonthebanksofthelagoonand
up into the valleys.With the arrival o Hawaiian settlers,
the450-acrelagoon
was used or theraising o sh. The
loulu
orest wascleared to plant
lo‘i kalo
(taroelds)
along the streamsand around theedges o the pond.
As
ali‘i 
inhabited theshoreline o Kailua Bay, three large
heiau
were constructed,
includingUlupōandPahukini.ByA.D.1600,theKailua
ahupua‘a
was an
‘ 
ā
ina momona
(richland)withpoliticaland
religious importance.
 
Hauwahine, the
mo’o
or guardian spirit,protects the people o Kawainui andassures an abundance o sh. The legendaryassociation o Ulupō Heiau with the
menehune
suggests the antiquity o thissite. The massiveness and quantity o 
rockcarriedmanymileshintatitscultural
importance.
Itislikelythatthefunctionofthis
heiau
 changed over time. It probably began as a
m
ā
 pele
oragricultural
heiau
with ceremonies and rites conductedto insure the ertility o the crops grown in Kawainui. Inlater times, it may have become a
luakini heiau
dedicatedto success in war with structures erected atop this massivestone platorm, including an altar, an oracle tower or ‘
anu‘u
,thatched hale, and notches in the terraces to hold the
ki‘i 
orwooden images. The spring o the lower corner o the
heiau
 was another important eature related to the ceremonialtraditions o the site.
SeveralO‘ahuchiefslivedatKailuaandprobablyheldceremoniesatUlupōHeiau,includingKākuhihewainthe1400sandKūali‘iinthelate1600s.Kuali‘ifoughtmany
battles and he may have rededicated Ulupō Heiau as a
luakini heiau
.MauichiefKahekilicametoO‘ahuinthe1780sandlivedinKailuaafterdefeatingO‘ahuhighchiefKahahanaforcontrolofO‘ahu.KamehamehaIworked
at Kawainui shpond and is said to have eaten the edible
mud(
lepo ‘ai ‘ia
)ofKawainuiwhentherewasashortageof
kalo
.Butby1795whenKamehamehaIconqueredO‘ahu,
it is believed that Ulupō Heiau was already abandoned. Thewooden structures had decayed and only stone remained.
Cl R 
UlupōHeiauStateHistoricParkconsistsof28acresalongthe
eastern edge o Kawainui and encompasses many culturaland historic sites that cover a broad time range rom the pre-
contactperiodtothe20thCentury.
Uo Hu 
 The massive raised platorm o Ulupō Heiau is roughly
squareandmeasures140by180feet(1.42acres).Itis
constructed with a large quantity o basalt boulders that
havebeenstackedtocreate30-fooghighterracedslopes
and a level platorm surace. The construction o this
massiveterracedplatformrequiredalargeworkforceunder
the direction o a powerul
ali‘i 
.
Ail Tr 
 There is a complex o agriculturalterraces, mounds, walls, platorms,and enclosures with a possible
‘auwai 
constructed along the edge o themarsh. Terraces suggest both
kula
(drylandagriculturalfeatures)and
lo‘i kalo
 
(wetlandswherespringsarepresent).
Pre-contact eatures appear to havebeen altered or use in the post-contact
periodforriceandtruckfarming.
H 
ALandCommissionAward(L.C.A.)fromtheMāheleof1848indicatesthatUlupōHeiauwasawardedtoUkikolo(L.C.A.2536:3)whoalsoclaimedahouselotatKūkanono.L.C.A.7147alongtheKūkanonoslopewastheresidentialcomplex
o a
konohiki 
named Kahele. Besides a house lot, the claimincluded 3
lo‘i kalo
along the edge o Kawainui. The area
wasconvertedtoriceeldsinthelater1870’sandoneoftheChinesefarmerslivedinKahele’shouse.Theearly20th
Century bottles suggest that the site was occupied until the
1920’sor1930’s.Locatedothenortheastcornerofthe
heiau
isaplatformfromahousesitebuiltcirca1940sanddemolishedinthe1970s.
Tk F & Py F 
Concreteandbrickfoundations,remnantsofasphalt
roadways, pipes and other materials indicate post-contact
useoftheKūkanonoslopeforfarmingofcropssuchaspapayaandbananainthe20thCentury.Thereareseveralstructuresofconcrete,rocks,andbricks.Thefoundationsofapiggery,ca.1949,consistsofconcreteooring,steps,and
troughs.With Western Contact,
lo‘i kalo
 were converted to rice andsoon ater, the lands around themarsh shited to pasture andranching use. Today, Kawainuiis a
wahi pana
(storiedplaceofculturalimportance)anda
wildlie sanctuary or migratoryand waterbirds.
-4-
Cl Lde R 
Restorationattemptstorecapturetheappearanceof
a cultural site at a particular point in time. The culturallandscape consists o eatures which contribute to the
landscape’sphysicalappearanceastheyhaveevolvedover
time. These eatures may include vegetation, topography,water eatures, trails, walls, and archaeological sites.
Ce Pn 
 The landscape around Ulupō Heiau would have consistedo the canoe plants brought by the early Polynesians ontheir voyaging canoes to Hawai‘i. Many o these plants were
staplesinthediet.AtUlupōHeiau,theagriculturepattern
would be reective o the lowland, windward
kula
zone. There may be elements o the
kai 
(coastalzone)and
uka
 
(uplandzone)butthelandscapewillbecomprisedlargely
o those plants associated with subsistence, domestic needs,and medicinal uses.Prominent in this landscape are the
lo‘i kalo
(irrigatedeldsystems)andsubsistencecropssuchas
‘uala, k 
ō
 ,mai‘a,
and
niu
. Plants grown or domestic purposes wouldinclude
ī
 , wauke
, and
ipu
while the medicinal plants wouldinclude
‘awa
and
noni 
.Alongtheedgesoftheseagricultural
eldsystems would be trees that can be consideredtransitional to the
uka
zone, such as
kukui, kamani,
and ‘
ulu
.Other trees more reective o the
kai 
to
kula
zone wouldinclude
milo
and
kou
. This cultural pattern is the basis ordeveloping the plant palette or this landscape plan.On the slopes between Ulupō Heiau and Kawainui are the
remnantsofthestackedrockretainingwallsoftheformer
lo‘i kalo
.Springsintheareaprovidethewatertoirrigate
these
lo‘i 
and the water is channeled by means o 
‘auwai 
 
(ditches)thatusegravitytotransportwaterthroughthe
lo‘i 
and into the Kawainui pond.
Vw Cr 
Plantings need to promote and preserve scenic and culturalsignicant view corridors. It is envisioned that removingmany o the alien trees between the
heiau
and the marshwill signicantly open the view corridors to Kawainui, KailuaBay and the Ko‘olau Mountains.
Pnt B 
 To promote the cultural landscape o the
heiau
, vegetation
buersarerecommendedtovisuallyblockmodernstructures.AvegetationbueralongKailuaRoadwould
provide both a visual and sound buer or the trafc
travelingonthismajorroadway.AvisualbuerfortheWindwardYMCAfacilityandtheresidenceswouldpromote
the eeling that one is entering a signicant
wahi pana
.
Pnt Ny 
Anurserywithirrigation,shadecloth,gravelandgrowing
benches is recommended to the south o the
heiau
andoutside the cultural site where no archaeological eaturesare located. This nursery will propagate plants or therestoration and educational programming.

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