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Terifah

Terifah

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Understanding basic concept regarding how a kosher animal becomes unfit for eating
Understanding basic concept regarding how a kosher animal becomes unfit for eating

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Categories:Types, Research
Published by: Rabbi Benyomin Hoffman on Nov 16, 2011
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

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11/16/2011

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הפרט
TEREIFAH
A Tereifah is an animal or bird that has acquired or was born with a fatal defect that will result in itsdeath within a year. (There are some who maintain that a Tereifah can live for more than a year, asmentioned in the Gemara - Chulin 42a.) The signs of the Tereifos do not have logical reasons;rather, they are Halachos l'Moshe mi'Sinai (
RASHI
to Chulin 42a DH Naflah. The Gemara (Chulin128b) teaches that when an animal that is a Tereifah (an animal with a fatal blemish) is killed by being slaughtered with a proper act of Shechitah, its carcass does not become a Neveilah and is notMetamei (although, of course, it is forbidden to eat)The signs of the Tereifos do not have logical reasons; rather, they are Halachos l'Moshe mi'Sinai(
RASHI
DH Naflah). Tana d'Vei Rebbi Yishmael records eighteen types of Tereifos, as follows:(This list is found in
YOSEF DA'AS
to Chulin, pp. 436-437; the sources to the main discussions inthe Gemara of each Siman Tereifah have been added.)1. Nekuvim - holes in various organs; these holes are even of the minutest size, but must beMefulashin, punctured through the organ or membrane. The organs included are:a] the Veshet (esophagus; included is a condition in which the outer and inner membranes of theesophagus are switched at any place on this organ; Daf 43a-44a); b] the Kerum ha'Mo'ach (cranial membrane; Daf 45a-b);c] the Lev (heart; Daf 45b);d] the Rei'ah (lung; 46a-49a);e] the Keivah (the fourth stomach of ruminants, or abomasum; Daf 49a);f] the Marah (gall bladder, according to Rebbi Yosi b'Rebbi Yehudah; the Chachamim argue, butour Mishnah follows his opinion; Daf 42b-43a);g] the Dakin (small intestines; a hole in the small intestines allow the waste material to leak out andcontaminate the abdominal cavity;
RAMBAM
Hilchos Shechitah 6:13);h] the Keres ha'Penimis (the "inner" stomach; the Keres is the first stomach of ruminants. There isa Machlokes (Daf 50b) as to the identification of the inner and outer parts of the Keres. Themost strict opinion (which is the ruling of the
SHULCHAN ARUCH
YD 48:2) is that theentire Keres is the Keres ha'Penimis and the surrounding flesh is what the Mishnah terms theKeres ha'Chitzonah);i] the Techol (spleen, according to Rav Avira; Chiya bar Rav argues. The puncture must occur inthe thicker, dorsal part of the organ; Daf 42b, 55a-b); j] the Beis ha'Kosos (the second stomach of ruminants, or reticulum. The puncture must occur inthe outer surface of the organ, not the surface adjacent to the Hemses; Daf 50b-51a)k] the Hemses (the third stomach of ruminants, or omasum. The puncture must occur in the outer surface of the organ, not the surface adjacent to the Beis ha'Kosos; Daf 50b-51a)2. Pesikos - splits in various organs. The organs included are:a] the Gargeres or Kaneh (trachea; the split must be in the majority of the circumference of thetrachea; Daf 44a-45a); b] the Chut ha'Shidra (the spinal chord; Daf 45b)3. Nital ha'Kaved - the liver is completely removed (the gall bladder remains attached to various veinsand ducts - TOSFOS DH Nikev; the Tana'im and Amora'im argue (Daf 46a) as to the status of theanimal if less than a k'Zayis of the Kaved remains)4. Rei'ah she'Chasrah - part of the lung is missing (included are various other Tereifos of the Rei'os,which have their basis in either Nikev or Chisaron; Daf 48b)5. Nikra Rov ha'Keres ha'Chitzonah - most of the circumference of the outer Keres (see above) is torn6. Behemah she'Naflah Min ha'Gag - an animal that falls off a roof (or any fall of at least ten Tefachim,even if there are no signs of injury) that was slaughtered immediately (Daf 51a)7. Nishtabru Rov Tzela'ose'ha - most of its ribs are broken (the Gemara, Daf 52a, discusses which ribsare counted)8. Derusas ha'Ze'ev, ha'Ari, etc. - the clawing of a wolf, lion, etc. (Daf 52b-54a; see Insights)

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