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Brooks 1994 - Relationship Science-Tech

Brooks 1994 - Relationship Science-Tech

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T he
re la tio n s h ip
b e tw e e n
s c ie n c e
a n d
te c h n o lo g y
H arvey
B ro o k s
Jo h n
F. K en n ed y
S ch o o l
o f
G o v ern m en t,
H a rv a rd
U niversily, 79 J.F.K .
S t r e e t ,
C a m b rid g e,
M A
0 2 1 3 8 ,
U SA
S c ie n c e ,
te c h n o lo g y
a n d
in n o v a tio n
e a c h
re p re s e n t
a
s u c -
c e s s iv e ly
la rg e r
c a te g o ry
o f
a c tiv itie s
w h ic h
a re
h ig h ly
in te rd e -
p e n d e n t
b u t
d is tin c t.
S c ie n c e
c o n trib u te s
t o
te c h n o lo g y
i n
a t
le a s t
s ix
w ays:
(1 )
n e w
k n o w le d g e
w h ic h
s e rv e s
a s
a
d ire c t
s o u rc e
o f
id e a s
fo r
n e w
te c h n o lo g ic a l
p o s s i b i l i t i e s ;
(2 )
s o u rc e
o f
to o ls
a n d
te c h n iq u e s
fo r
m o re
e ffic ie n t
e n g in e e rin g
d e s ig n
a n d
a
k n o w le d g e
b a s e
fo r
e v a lu a tio n
o f
fe a s ib ility
o f
d e s ig n s ;
(3 )
re s e a rc h
in s tru m e n ta tio n ,
la b o ra to ry
te c h n iq u e s
a n d
a n a -
ly tic a l
m e th o d s
u s e d
i n
re s e a rc h
th a t
e v e n tu a lly
fin d
th e ir
w ay
in to
d e s ig n
o r
in d u s tria l
p ra c tic e s ,
o fte n
th ro u g h
in te rm e d ia te
d is c ip lin e s ;
(4 )
p ra c tic e
o f
re s e a rc h
a s
a
s o u rc e
fo r
d e v e lo p -
m ent
a n d
assim ilatio n
o f
n e w
hum an
s k i l l s
a n d
c a p a b ilitie s
e v e n tu a lly
u s e fu l
fo r
te c h n o lo g y ;
(5 )
c re a tio n
o f
a
k n o w le d g e
b a s e
th a t
becom es
in c re a s in g ly
im p o rta n t
i n
th e
assessm ent
o f
te c h n o lo g y
i n
term s
o f
i t s
w id e r
s o c ia l
a n d
e n v iro n m e n ta l
im p a c ts ;
(6 )
k n o w le d g e
b a s e
th a t
e n a b le s
m o re
e ffic ie n t
s tra te g ie s
o f
a p p lie d
re s e a rc h ,
d e v e lo p m e n t,
a n d
refinem ent
o f
n e w
te c h n o lo g ie s .
T he
c o n v e rs e
im p a c t
o f
te c h n o lo g y
o n
s c ie n c e
is of
a t
le a s t
e q u a l
im p o rta n c e :
(1 )
th ro u g h
p ro v id in g
a
f e r tile
s o u rc e
o f
n o v e l
s c ie n tific
q u e s tio n s
a n d
th e re b y
a ls o
h e lp in g
t o
ju s tif y
th e
a llo c a tio n
o f
re s o u rc e s
n e e d e d
t o
a d d re s s
th e s e
q u e s tio n s
i n
a n
e ffic ie n t
a n d
tim ely
m anner,
e x te n d in g
th e
a g e n d a
o f
s c ie n c e ;
(2 )
a s
a
s o u rc e
o f
o th erw ise
u n a v a ila b le
in s tru m e n ta -
tio n
a n d
te c h n iq u e s
n e e d e d
t o
a d d re s s
n o v e l
a n d
m o re
d iffi-
c u lt
s c ie n tific
q u e s tio n s
m o re
e ffic ie n tly .
S p e c ific
e x a m p le s
o f
e a c h
o f
th e s e
tw o -w ay
in te ra c tio n s
a re
d is c u s s e d .
B ecause
o f
m any
in d ire c t
a s
w e ll
a s
d ire c t
c o n n e c tio n s
b e tw e e n
s c ie n c e
a n d
te c h n o lo g y ,
th e
re s e a rc h
p o rtfo lio
o f p o te n tia l
s o c ia l
b e n e fit
is m uch
b ro a d e r
a n d
m o re
d iv e rs e
th a n
w o u ld
b e
s u g g e s te d
b y
lo o k in g
o n ly
a t
th e
d ire c t
c o n n e c tio n s
b e tw e e n
s c ie n c e
a n d
te c h n o lo g y .
C o rresp o n d en ce
to :
H .
B rooks,
J o h n
F .
K ennedy
S c h o o l
o f
G o v e rn m e n t,
H arvard
U n iv e rs ity ,
7 9
J .F .K .
S tre e t,
C am -
b rid g e ,
M A
0 2 1 3 8 ,
U SA .
T e l.,
(6 1 7 )
4 9 5 -1 4 4 5 ;
fa x ,
(6 1 7 )
4 9 5 -5 7 7 6 .
R esearch
P o lic y
2 3
(1 9 9 4 )
4 7 7 -4 8 6
N o rth -H o lla n d
1 . I n tr o d u c tio n
M uch
p u b lic
d e b a te
a b o u t
s c ie n c e
a n d
te c h -
n o lo g y
p o lic y
h a s
b e e n
im p licitly
d o m in a te d
b y
a
\u2018p ip e lin e \u2019
m odel
o f
th e
in n o v a tio n
p ro c e s s
in
w h ic h
n e w
te c h n o lo g ic a l
id e a s
em erge
a s
a
r e s u lt
of new
d is c o v e rie s
in
s c ie n c e
a n d
m ove
th ro u g h
a
p ro g re s s io n
fro m
a p p lie d
re s e a rc h ,
d e s ig n ,
m anu-
fa c tu rin g
a n d ,
fin a lly ,
c o m m e rc ia liz a tio n
a n d
m a rk e tin g .
T h is
m odel
seem ed
t o
c o rre s p o n d
w ith
som e
o f
th e
m ost
v is ib le
s u c c e s s
s to r ie s
o f
W orld
W ar
I I ,
s u c h
a s
th e
ato m ic
bom b,
ra d a r,
a n d
th e
p ro x im ity
fu z e ,
a n d
a p p e a re d
t o
b e
fu rth e r
exem -
p lifie d
b y
d e v e lo p m e n ts
s u c h
a s
th e
tr a n s is to r ,
th e
la s e r,
th e
c o m p u te r,
a n d ,
m ost
re c e n tly ,
th e
n a s c e n t
b io te c h n o lo g y
in d u s try
a r is in g
o u t
o f
th e
d is c o v e ry
o f
recom binant
D N A
te c h n iq u e s .
T he
m odel
w as
a ls o ,
p e rh a p s
in a d v e rte n tly ,
le g iti-
m a te d
b y
th e
in flu e n tia l
B ush
re p o rt,
S c ie n c e ,
th e
E n d le s s
F r o n tie r ,
w h ic h
o v e r
tim e
cam e
t o
b e
in te rp re te d
a s
s a y in g
th a t
if the
n a tio n
s u p p o rte d
s c ie n tis ts
t o
c a rry
o u t
re s e a rc h
a c c o rd in g
t o
th e ir
ow n
s e n s e
of what
w as
im p o rta n t
a n d
in te re s tin g ,
te c h n o lo g ie s
u s e fu l
t o
h e a lth ,
n a tio n a l
s e c u rity ,
a n d
th e
econom y
w o u ld
fo llo w
alm ost
a u to m a ti-
c a lly
o n c e
th e
p o te n tia l
o p p o rtu n itie s
o p e n e d
u p
by new
s c ie n tific
d is c o v e rie s
becam e
w id e ly
know n
t o
th e
m ilitary ,
th e
h e a lth
p ro fe ssio n s,
a n d
th e
p riv a te
e n tre p re n e u rs
o p e ra tin g
in
th e
n a tio n a l
econom y.
(S e e
U n ite d
S ta te s
O ffice
o f
S c ie n tific
R esearch
a n d
D e v e lo p m e n t
(1 9 4 5 )
fo r
a
re c e n t
a c c o u n t
o f
th e
p o litic a l
c o n te x t
a n d
g e n e ra l
in te l-
le c tu a l
clim ate
in
w h ic h
th is
re p o rt
o rig in a te d ;
s e e
a ls o
F re d e ric k s o n ,
1 9 9 3 .)
T he
b o d y
o f
re -
s e a rc h
k n o w le d g e
w as
th o u g h t
o f
a s
a
k in d
o f
in te lle c tu a l
b a n k
a c c o u n t
o n
w h ic h
s o c ie ty
a s
a
0 0 4 8 -7 3 3 3 /9 4 /$ 0 7 .0 0
0
1 9 9 4
-
E ls e v ie r
S c ie n c e
B .V .
A ll
rig h ts
re s e rv e d
SSD I
0 0 4 8 -7 3 3 3 (9 4 )0 1 0 0 1 -S
4 7 8
H . B ro o k s
/
T h e rela t io n s h ip
betw een
s c i e n c e
a n d
tech n o lu R y
w h o le
w o u ld
b e
a b te
t o
d ra w
alm ost
a u to m a ti-
c a liy a s re q u ire d
to fulfil its aspirations
and needs.
T h o u g h
m ost
k n o w le d g e a b le
p e o p le
u n d e r-
s to o d
th a t
s u c h
a m odel
c o rre s p o n d e d
o n ly
to the
r a r e
a n d
e x c e p tio n a l
c a s e s
c ite d
a b o v e ,
it b e c a m e
e m b o d ie d
in p o litic a l
rh e to ric
a n d
to o k
c o n s id e r-
a b le
h o ld
o n
th e
p u b lic
im a g in a tio n
a n d
seem ed
t o
b e
c o n firm e d
b y
a
s u ffic ie n t
num ber
o f
d ra -
m atic
a n e c d o te s
so that
it was regarded
a s ty p ic a l
o f th e
e n tire
p ro c e s s
o f te c h n o lo g ic a l
in n o v a tio n ,
th o u g h
it was severely
c ritic iz e d
by m any
s c h o la rs .
(S e e
K lin e
a n d
R osenberg
(1 9 8 6 ) fo r
a n
e x a m p le
of criticism
a n d
a n
e x c e lle n t
d is c u s s io n
of a m ore
r e a l i s t i c
a n d
ty p ic a l
m o d e l.)
O ne
c o n s e q u e n c e
w as
c o n s id e ra b le
c o n fu s io n
i n
th e
p u b lic
m ind
b e tw e e n
s c ie n c e
a n d
e n g in e e rin g ,
a n
e x c e s s iv e
p re o c c u p a tio n
w ith
te c h n ic a l
o rig in a lity
a n d
p ri-
o rity
o f
c o n c e p tio n
a s
n o t
o n ly
n e c e s s a ry
b u t
s u ffic ie n t
c o n d itio n s
fo r
s u c c e s s fu l
te c h n o lo g ic a l
in n o v a tio n ,
a n d
i n
fa c t
a n
e q u a tin g
of organized
re s e a rc h
a n d
d e v e lo p m e n t
(R & D )
w ith
th e
in n o -
v a tio n
p ro c e s s
its e lf .
T he
r a tio
o f n a tio n a l
R& D
e x p e n d itu re s
t o
g ro ss
d o m e s tic
p ro d u c t
(G D P )
o fte n
becam e
a
su rro g a te
m easure
o f
n a tio n a l
te c h n o lo g ic a l
perform ance
a n d ,
u Itim a te ly ,
o f
lo n g -te rm
n a tio n a l
e c o n o m ic
p o te n tia l.
T he
c o n -
te n t
o f
R& D
w as
tre a te d
a s
a
\u2018b la c k
b o x \u2019
th a t
y ie ld e d
b e n e fits
alm ost
in d e p e n d e n tly
o f
w hat
w a s in s id e
it (B rooks,
1 9 9 3 , p p . 3 0 -3 1 ).
T he
p u b lic
m ay
b e
fo rg iv e n
its c o n fu s io n s ,
a s
in d e e d
th e
re la tio n s h ip s
b e tw e e n
s c ie n c e
a n d
te c h n o lo g y
a re
v e ry
c o m p le x ,
th o u g h
in te ra c tiv e ,
a n d
a re
o fte n
d iffe re n t
in different
fie ld s
a n d
a t
d iffe re n t
p h a s e s
o f
a
te c h n o lo g ic a l
\u2018 lif e
c y c le \u2019.
N elson
(1992) has given
a d e fin itio n
o f te c h n o lo g y
b o th
a s \u201c. . , s p e c ific
d e s ig n s
a n d
p ra c tic e s \u201d
a n d
a s
\u201c g e n e ric
k n o w le d g e ..
.th a t
p ro v id e s
u n d e rs ta n d -
in g
o f
h o w
[a n d
w h y ] th in g s
w o rk ..
. \u201d
a n d
w hat
a re
th e
m ost
p ro m is in g
a p p ro a c h e s
t o
fu rth e r
a d v a n c e s ,
in c lu d in g
\u201c .. . th e
n a tu re
o f
c u rre n tly
b in d in g
c o n s tra in ts .\u201d
It is im portant
h e re
t o
n o te
th a t
te c h n o io g y
is n o t ju s t th in g s , b u t a ls o e m b o d -
ie s
a
d e g re e
o f
g e n e ric
u n d e rs ta n d in g ,
w h ic h
m akes
i t
s e e m
m o re
lik e
s c ie n c e ,
a n d
y e t
i t
i s
u n d e rs ta n d in g
th a t
re la te s
t o
a
s p e c ific
a rtifa c t,
w h ic h
d is tin g u is h e s
it from
norm al
s c ie n tific
u n -
d e rs ta n d in g ,
a lth o u g h
th e re
m ay be
a close
c o rre -
s p o n d e n c e .
S im ilarly ,
N elson
(1992, p. 349) defines
in n o v a -
tio n
a s
\u201c. . .th e
p ro c e s s e s
b y w h ic h
firm s
m aster
a n d
g e t
in to
p ra c tic e
p ro d u c t
d e s ig n s
th a t
a re
n e w
t o
th e m ,
w h e th e r
or not
th e y
a re
n e w
t o
th e
u n iv e rs e ,
or even
t o
th e
n a tio n .\u201d
T he
c u rre n t
U S
m e n ta l
m odel
o f in n o v a tio n
o fte n
p la c e s
e x c e s s iv e
em phasis
o n o rig in a lity
in the
s e n s e
of new ness
t o
th e
u n iv e rs e
as opposed
to n e w n e s s
in c o n te x t.
I n
g e n e ra l,
th e
a c tiv itie s
a n d
in v e s tm e n ts
a s s o c ia te d
w ith
\u2018te c h n o Io g ic a 1
le a d e rs h ip \u2019
i n
th e
s e n s e
o f
a b s o lu te
o rig in a li~
d iffe r
m uch
le s s th a n
is g e n -
e ra lly
assum ed
fro m
th o s e
a s s o c ia te d
w ith
sim p ly
s ta y in g
n e a r
th e
fo re fro n t
o f
b e s t
n a tio n a l
o r
w o rld
p ra c tic e .
Y et
R& D
i s
a ls o
n e c e s s a ry
fo r
le a rn in g
a b o u t
te c h n o lo g y
e v e n
w hen
i t
i s
n o t
\u2018n e w
t o
th e
u n iv e rs e \u2019
b u t
o n ly
i n
th e
p a rtic u la r
c o n te x t
in w hich
it is being
u s e d
fo r th e
first tim e
(B ro o k s,
1 9 9 1 , p p . 2 0 -2 5 ).
H ow ever,
in n o v a tio n
in v o lv e s
m uch
m o re
th a n
R & D .
C h a rp ie
(1 9 6 7 ) h a s p ro v id e d
a representa-
tiv e
a llo c a tio n
of effort
th a t
g o e s
in to
th e
in tro -
d u c tio n
of a new
p ro d u c t,
as follows:
(a )
c o n c e p tio n ,
p rim arily
k n o w le d g e
g e n e ra -
tio n
(re s e a rc h ,
a d v a n c e d
d e v e lo p m e n t,
b a s ic
in -
v e n tio n )
5 -1 0 % ;
(b) product
d e s ig n
a n d
e n g in e e rin g ,
lo -2 0 % ;
c c > g e ttin g
re a d y
fo r
m a n u fa c tu rin g
(la y -o u t,
to o lin g ,
p ro c e s s
d e s ig n ),
4 0 -6 0 % ;
(d ) m a n u fa c tu rin g
sta rt-u p ,
d e b u g g in g
p ro d u c -
tio n , 5 -1 5 % ;
(e )
m a rk e tin g
sta rt-u p ,
p ro b in g
th e
m a rk e t,
lo -2 0 % .
I t
d o e s
n o t
fo llo w
fro m
th is
th a t
R& D
o r
k n o w le d g e
g e n e ra tio n
is o n ly
5 -1 0 %
o f to ta l
in -
n o v a tiv e
a c tiv ity
b e c a u s e
m a n y p ro je c ts
are started
th a t
n e v e r
g e t
b e y o n d
s ta g e
(a )
a n d
a n
e v e n
sm aller
p ro p o rtio n
o f p ro je c ts
a re
c a rrie d
a ll th e
w ay
th ro u g h
s ta g e
( e ) .
I n
a d d itio n ,
th e re
i s
a
c e rta in
am ount
o f
b a c k g ro u n d
re s e a rc h
th a t
i s
c a rrie d
o u t
o n
a level-of-effort
b a s is w ith o u t
a n y
s p e c ific
p ro d u c t
i n
m in d .
T h e re
is no
v e ry
g o o d
estim ate
o f
w hat
p e rc e n ta g e
o f
th e
in n o v a tiv e
a c tiv ity
o f a p a rtic u la r
f ir m
w o u ld
b e
c la s s ifie d
i n
c a te g o ry
(a )
if
u n s u c c e s s fu l
p ro je c ts
o r
b a c k -
g ro u n d
re s e a rc h
a re
ta k e n
in to
a c c o u n t.
T he
fa c t
re m a in s
th a t
a ll fiv e s ta g e s
in v o lv e
a certain
p ro -
p o rtio n
o f
te c h n ic a l
w o rk
w h ic h
is n o t
c la s s ifie d
as R & D ,
a n d
th e
c o lle c tio n
o f s ta tis tic a l
d a ta
o n
th is p o rtio n
of \u2018dow nstream \u2019
in n o v a tiv e
a c tiv ity
i s
i n
a very
ru d im e n ta ry
s ta te
com pared
w ith
th a t
fo r
o rg a n iz e d
R & D .
In d e e d ,
o n ly
a b o u t
3 5 %
o f
s c ie n tis ts
a n d
e n g in e e rs
i n
th e
U S
a re
e m p lo y e d
in R & D .
I n
sm all firm s,
e s p e c ia lly
te c h n o lo g ic a l
\u2018n ic h e \u2019
H . B ro o k s
/
T h e rela t io n s h ip
betw een
s c i e n c e
a n d
tech n o lo gy
4 7 9
firm s
w hose
b u s in e s s
is
b a s e d
o n
a
c lu s te r
o f
s p e c ia liz e d
te c h n o lo g ie s
w h ic h
a re
o fte n
d e s ig n e d
in
c lo s e
c o lla b o ra tio n
w ith
p o te n tia l
u s e r s ,
th e re
is
a
g o o d
d e a l
o f
te c h n ic a l
a c tiv ity
b y
h ig h ly
tra in e d
p e o p le
w h ic h
is
n e v e r
c a p tu re d
in
th e
u s u a l
R& D
s ta tis tic s .
T h u s ,
s c ie n c e ,
te c h n o lo g y ,
a n d
in n o v a tio n
e a c h
re p re s e n t
a
s u c c e s s iv e ly
la rg e r
u n iv e rs e
o f
a c tiv i-
tie s
w h ic h
a re
h ig h ly
in te rd e p e n d e n t,
y e t
n e v e r-
th e le s s
d is tin c t
fro m
e a c h
o th e r.
E v e n
s u c c e s s
in
te c h n o lo g y
b y
its e lf ,
le t
a lo n e
s c ie n c e ,
p ro v id e s
a n
in s u ffic ie n t
b a s is
fo r
s u c c e s s
in
th e
w h o le
p ro c e s s
o f
te c h n o lo g ic a l
in n o v a tio n .
In
fa c t,
th e
re la tio n
b e tw e e n
s c ie n c e
a n d
te c h n o lo g y
is b e tte r
th o u g h t
o f
in
term s
o f
tw o
p a ra lle l
stream s
o f
c u m u la tiv e
k n o w le d g e ,
w h ic h
h a v e
m any
in te rd e p e n d e n c ie s
a n d
c r o s s
re la tio n s ,
b u t
w hose
in te rn a l
c o n n e c -
tio n s
a re
m uch
s tro n g e r
th a n
th e ir
c r o s s
c o n n e c -
tio n s .
T he
m e ta p h o r
I like
t o
u se
is tw o
s tra n d s
o f
D N A
w h ic h
c a n
e x is t
in d e p e n d e n tly ,
b u t
c a n n o t
b e
tru ly
fu n c tio n a l
u n til
th e y
a re
p a ire d .
2 .T he
c o n tr ib u tio n s
o f sc ie n c e
t o
te c h n o lo g y
T he
re la tio n s
b e tw e e n
s c ie n c e
a n d
te c h n o lo g y
a re
c o m p le x
a n d
v a ry
c o n s id e ra b ly
w ith
th e
p a r-
tic u la r
f ie ld
o f
te c h n o lo g y
b e in g
d is c u s s e d .
F o r
m e c h a n ic a l
te c h n o lo g y ,
fo r
e x a m p le ,
th e
c o n tri-
b u tio n
of science
t o
te c h n o lo g y
is relatively
w eak,
a n d
it is often
p o s s ib le
t o
m ake
ra th e r
im p o rta n t
in v e n tio n s
w ith o u t
a
d e e p
k n o w le d g e
o f
th e
u n -
d e rly in g
s c ie n c e .
B y
c o n tra s t,
e le c tric a l,
c h e m ic a l,
a n d
n u c le a r
te c h n o lo g y
a re
d e e p ly
d e p e n d e n t
o n
s c ie n c e ,
a n d
m ost
in v e n tio n s
a re
m ade
o n ly
b y
p e o p le
w ith
c o n s id e ra b le
tra in in g
in
s c ie n c e .
In
th e
fo llo w in g
d is c u s s io n ,
w e
o u tlin e
th e
v a rie ty
o f
w ays
in
w h ic h
s c ie n c e
c a n
c o n trib u te
t o
te c h n o -
lo g ic a l
d e v e lo p m e n t.
T he
c o m p le x ity
o f
th e
in te r-
c o n n e c tio n s
o f
s c ie n c e
a n d
te c h n o lo g y
is
fu rth e r
d is c u s s e d
in
N elson
a n d
R osenberg
(1 9 9 3 ).
2 .1 .
S cien ce
as a
d irect
so u rce
o f n ew
tech n o lo gica l
id ea s
In
th is
c a s e ,
o p p o rtu n itie s
fo r
m e e tin g
n e w
s o c ia l
n e e d s
o r
p re v io u s ly
id e n tifie d
s o c ia l
n e e d s
in
n e w
w ays
a re
c o n c e iv e d
a s
a direct
s e q u e l
t o
a
s c ie n tific
d is c o v e ry
m ade
in
th e
c o u rs e
o f
a n
e x p lo ra tio n
o f
n a tu ra l
phenom ena
u n d e rta k e n
w ith
n o
p o te n tia l
a p p lic a tio n
in
m in d .
T he
d is c o v -
e ry
o f u ra n iu m
f is s io n
le a d in g
t o
th e
c o n c e p t
of a
n u c le a r
c h a in
re a c tio n
a n d
th e
ato m ic
bom b
a n d
n u c le a r
pow er
is ,
p e rh a p s ,
th e
c le a n e s t
e x a m p le
o f
th is .
O th e r
e x a m p le s
in c lu d e
th e
la s e r
a n d
i t s
num erous
e m b o d im e n ts
a n d
a p p lic a tio n s ,
th e
d is -
c o v e rie s
o f
X -ray s
a n d
o f
a rtific ia l
ra d io a c tiv ity
a n d
th e ir
s u b s e q u e n t
a p p lic a tio n s
in
m e d ic in e
a n d
in d u s try ,
th e
d is c o v e ry
o f
n u c le a r
m a g n e tic
re s o n a n c e
(N M R )
a n d
i t s
s u b s e q u e n t
m a n ifo ld
a p p lic a tio n s
in
c h e m ic a l
a n a ly s is ,
b io m e d ic a l
re -
s e a rc h ,
a n d
u ltim ately
m e d ic a l
d ia g n o s is ,
a n d
m aser
am p lifiers
a n d
th e ir
a p p lic a tio n s
in
ra -
d io a s tro n o m y
a n d
c o m m u n ic a tio n s .
T h e s e
d o
e x -
em p lify
m ost
o f th e
fe a tu re s
o f th e
p ip e lin e
m odel
o f
in n o v a tio n
d e s c rib e d
a b o v e .
Y e t,
th e y
a re
th e
r a r e s t,
b u t
th e re fo re
a ls o
th e
m ost
dram atic
c a s e s ,
w h ic h
m ay
a c c o u n t
fo r
th e
p e rs is te n c e
o f
th e
p ip e lin e
m odel
o f
p u b lic
d is c u s s io n s .
I t
a ls o
s u its
th e
p u rp o s e
of basic
s c ie n tis ts
a rg u in g
fo r
g o v e rn -
m ent
s u p p o rt
o f th e ir
re s e a rc h
in
a p ra g m a tic a lly
o rie n te d
c u ltu re .
A
m o re
com m on
e x a m p le
o f
a
d ire c t
g e n e tic
re la tio n s h ip
b e tw e e n
s c ie n c e
a n d
te c h n o lo g y
o c -
c u rs
w hen
th e
e x p lo ra tio n
o f
a
n e w
f ie ld
o f
s c i-
e n c e
is
d e lib e ra te ly
u n d e rta k e n
w ith
a
g e n e ra l
a n tic ip a tio n
th a t
it
h a s
a
h ig h
lik e lih o o d
o f
le a d -
in g
t o
u s e fu l
a p p lic a tio n s ,
th o u g h
th e re
is
n o
s p e c ific
e n d -p ro d u c t
in
m in d .
T he
w o rk
a t
B e ll
T e le p h o n e
L a b o ra to rie s
a n d
elsew here
w h ic h
le d
e v e n tu a lly
t o
th e
in v e n tio n
o f th e
tr a n s is to r
is o n e
o f
th e
c le a re s t
e x a m p le s
o f
th is .
T he
g ro u p
th a t
w as
s e t
u p
a t
B e ll
L a b s
t o
e x p lo re
th e
p h y s ic s
o f
G ro u p
I V
sem iconductors
s u c h
a s
g e rm a n iu m
w as
c le a rly
m o tiv a te d
b y
th e
h o p e
o f
fin d in g
a
m e th o d
o f
m a k in g
a
s o lid
s ta te
am p lifier
t o
su b -
s t i t u t e
fo r
th e
u se
o f
v a c u u m
tu b e s
in
re p e a te rs
fo r
th e
transm ission
o f
te le p h o n e
s ig n a ls
o v e r
lo n g
d is ta n c e s .
A s
in d ic a te d
a b o v e ,
m uch
s o -c a lle d
b a s ic
re -
s e a rc h
u n d e rta k e n
b y
in d u s try
o r
s u p p o rte d
b y
th e
m ilitary
s e rv ic e s
h a s
b e e n
u n d e rta k e n
w ith
th is
k in d
o f
n o n -s p e c ific
p o te n tia l
a p p lic a b ility
in
m in d ,
a n d
in d e e d
m uch
b a s ic
b io m e d ic a l
re s e a rc h
is
o f
th is
c h a ra c te r.
T he
s e le c tio n
o f
fie ld s
fo r
em phasis
is a \u2018strategic\u2019
d e c is io n ,
w h ile
th e
a c tu a l
d a y -to -d a y
\u2018ta c tic s \u2019
o f
th e
re s e a rc h
a re
d e le g a te d
t o
th e
\u2018b e n c h
s c ie n tis ts \u2019.
B road
in d u s tria l
a n d
governm ent
s u p p o rt
fo r
c o n d e n s e d
m atter
p h y s ic s
a n d
ato m ic
a n d
m o le c u la r
p h y s ic s
s in c e
W orld
W ar
I I
h a s
b e e n
m o tiv a te d
b y
th e
w ell-su b stan ti-
a te d
e x p e c ta tio n
th a t
it w o u ld
le a d
t o
im p o rta n t

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