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To Chuc Thuong Mai the Gioi

To Chuc Thuong Mai the Gioi

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Published by: api-3849435 on Oct 19, 2008
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03/18/2014

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CH\u01af\u01a0NG 1
Nh\u1eefng n\u00e9t ch\u00ednh
S\u1ef1 ra \u0111\u1eddi c\u1ee7a T\u1ed5 ch\u1ee9c Th\u01b0\u01a1ng m\u1ea1i th\u1ebf gi\u1edbi (WTO) l\u00e0 k\u1ebft qu\u1ea3 c\u1ee7a nh\u1eefng cu\u1ed9c \u0111\u00e0m ph\u00e1n; t\u1ea5t c\u1ea3
nh\u1eefng g\u00ec t\u1ed5 ch\u1ee9c n\u00e0y l\u00e0m \u0111\u01b0\u1ee3c \u0111\u1ec1u th\u00f4ng qua con \u0111\u01b0\u1eddng \u0111\u00e0m ph\u00e1n.
1. T\u1ed5 ch\u1ee9c Th\u01b0\u01a1ng m\u1ea1i th\u1ebf gi\u1edbi (WTO) l\u00e0 g\u00ec?

N\u00f3i m\u1ed9t c\u00e1ch \u0111\u01a1n gi\u1ea3n, WTO l\u00e0 n\u01a1i \u0111\u1ec1 ra nh\u1eefng qui \u0111\u1ecbnh \u0111i\u1ec1u ti\u1ebft ho\u1ea1t \u0111\u1ed9ng th\u01b0\u01a1ng m\u1ea1i c\u1ee7a c\u00e1c
qu\u1ed1c gia tr\u00ean qui m\u00f4 to\u00e0n th\u1ebf gi\u1edbi ho\u1eb7c g\u1ea7n nh\u01b0 to\u00e0n th\u1ebf gi\u1edbi. Tuy nhi\u00ean, \u0111\u00f3 ch\u01b0a ph\u1ea3i l\u00e0 t\u1ea5t
c\u1ea3\u2026

Tr\u01b0\u1edbc ti\u00ean, WTO l\u00e0 m\u1ed9t khu\u00f4n kh\u1ed5 \u0111\u1ec3 \u0111\u00e0m ph\u00e1n\u2026 WTO l\u00e0 di\u1ec5n \u0111\u00e0n, n\u01a1i c\u00e1c qu\u1ed1c gia th\u00e0nh

vi\u00ean th\u01b0\u01a1ng l\u01b0\u1ee3ng gi\u1ea3i quy\u1ebft nh\u1eefng tranh ch\u1ea5p ph\u00e1t sinh trong quan h\u1ec7 th\u01b0\u01a1ng m\u1ea1i gi\u1eefa h\u1ecd.
B\u01b0\u1edbc gi\u1ea3i quy\u1ebft tranh ch\u1ea5p \u0111\u1ea7u ti\u00ean l\u00e0 th\u1ea3o lu\u1eadn. WTO ra \u0111\u1eddi t\u1eeb c\u00e1c cu\u1ed9c \u0111\u00e0m ph\u00e1n v\u00e0 t\u1ea5t c\u1ea3
nh\u1eefng g\u00ec t\u1ed5 ch\u1ee9c n\u00e0y l\u00e0m \u0111\u01b0\u1ee3c \u0111\u1ec1u th\u00f4ng qua con \u0111\u01b0\u1eddng \u0111\u00e0m ph\u00e1n. C\u00e1c ho\u1ea1t \u0111\u1ed9ng m\u00e0 WTO
\u0111ang x\u00fac ti\u1ebfn hi\u1ec7n nay ch\u1ee7 y\u1ebfu xu\u1ea5t ph\u00e1t t\u1eeb nh\u1eefng cu\u1ed9c \u0111\u00e0m ph\u00e1n di\u1ec5n ra t\u1eeb n\u0103m 1986 \u0111\u1ebfn
1994, mang t\u00ean V\u00f2ng \u0111\u00e0m ph\u00e1n Uruguay, v\u00e0 t\u1eeb nh\u1eefng cu\u1ed9c \u0111\u00e0m ph\u00e1n tr\u01b0\u1edbc \u0111\u00f3 trong khu\u00f4n kh\u1ed5
Hi\u1ec7p \u0111\u1ecbnh chung v\u1ec1 Thu\u1ebf quan v\u00e0 Th\u01b0\u01a1ng m\u1ea1i (GATT). Hi\u1ec7n nay, WTO \u0111ang t\u1ed5 ch\u1ee9c r\u1ea5t nhi\u1ec1u
cu\u1ed9c \u0111\u00e0m ph\u00e1n m\u1edbi trong khu\u00f4n kh\u1ed5 \u201cCh\u01b0\u01a1ng tr\u00ecnh ph\u00e1t tri\u1ec3n Doha\u201d \u0111\u01b0\u1ee3c kh\u1edfi x\u01b0\u1edbng t\u1eeb n\u0103m
2001.

H\u1ec7 th\u1ed1ng th\u01b0\u01a1ng m\u1ea1i \u201c\u0111a bi\u00ean\u201d\u2026

\u2026 l\u00e0 h\u1ec7 th\u1ed1ng do WTO \u0111i\u1ec1u h\u00e0nh. Ph\u1ea7n l\u1edbn c\u00e1c qu\u1ed1c gia tr\u00ean th\u1ebf gi\u1edbi \u2013 trong \u0111\u00f3 g\u1ed3m h\u1ea7u h\u1ebft c\u00e1c c\u01b0\u1eddng qu\u1ed1c th\u01b0\u01a1ng m\u1ea1i ch\u00ednh c\u1ee7a th\u1ebf gi\u1edbi \u2013 l\u00e0 th\u00e0nh vi\u00ean c\u1ee7a h\u1ec7 th\u1ed1ng n\u00e0y. Tuy v\u1eady, c\u00f3 m\u1ed9t s\u1ed1 n\u01b0\u1edbc kh\u00f4ng gia nh\u1eadp h\u1ec7 th\u1ed1ng n\u00ean thu\u1eadt ng\u1eef \u201cth\u1ebf gi\u1edbi\u201d \u0111\u00e3 \u0111\u01b0\u1ee3c thay th\u1ebf b\u1eb1ng thu\u1eadt ng\u1eef \u201c\u0111a bi\u00ean\u201d \u0111\u1ec3 n\u00eau l\u00ean \u0111\u1eb7c \u0111i\u1ec3m n\u00e0y.

\u0110\u1ed1i v\u1edbi WTO, thu\u1eadt ng\u1eef n\u00e0y c\u00f2n bao h\u00e0m m\u1ed9t ngh\u0129a quan tr\u1ecdng kh\u00e1c. T\u1ea1i \u0111\u00e2y, \u201c\u0111a bi\u00ean\u201d c\u00f3 ngh\u0129a l\u00e0 c\u00e1c ho\u1ea1t \u0111\u1ed9ng \u0111\u01b0\u1ee3c tri\u1ec3n khai tr\u00ean qui m\u00f4 th\u1ebf gi\u1edbi ho\u1eb7c g\u1ea7n nh\u01b0 to\u00e0n th\u1ebf gi\u1edbi (\u0111\u1eb7c bi\u1ec7t \u0111\u1ed1i v\u1edbi c\u00e1c n\u01b0\u1edbc th\u00e0nh vi\u00ean WTO), thu\u1eadt ng\u1eef \u0111\u01b0\u1ee3c s\u1eed d\u1ee5ng nh\u1eb1m \u0111\u1ed1i l\u1eadp v\u1edbi nh\u1eefng bi\u1ec7n ph\u00e1p s\u1eed d\u1ee5ng trong ph\u1ea1m vi khu v\u1ef1c ho\u1eb7c trong m\u1ed9t s\u1ed1 nh\u00f3m qu\u1ed1c gia. ("\u0110a bi\u00ean" \u0111\u01b0\u1ee3c s\u1eed d\u1ee5ng kh\u00e1c v\u1edbi "\u0111a ph\u01b0\u01a1ng" v\u1eabn th\u01b0\u1eddng \u0111\u01b0\u1ee3c s\u1eed d\u1ee5ng trong nh\u1eefng l\u0129nh v\u1ef1c quan h\u1ec7 qu\u1ed1c t\u1ebf kh\u00e1c, theo \u0111\u00f3, m\u1ed9t c\u01a1 ch\u1ebf an ninh \u201c\u0111a ph\u01b0\u01a1ng\u201d c\u00f3 th\u1ec3 mang t\u00ednh ch\u1ea5t to\u00e0n khu v\u1ef1c.)

\u0110\u1ed1i v\u1edbi nh\u1eefng n\u01b0\u1edbc g\u1eb7p ph\u1ea3i nh\u1eefng r\u00e0o c\u1ea3n trong th\u01b0\u01a1ng m\u1ea1i v\u00e0 mu\u1ed1n v\u01b0\u1ee3t qua ch\u00fang, th\u00ec \u0111\u00e0m ph\u00e1n g\u00f3p ph\u1ea7n th\u00fac \u0111\u1ea9y t\u1ef1 do ho\u00e1 th\u01b0\u01a1ng m\u1ea1i. Tuy nhi\u00ean, WTO kh\u00f4ng ch\u1ec9 t\u1eadp trung v\u00e0o m\u1ee5c ti\u00eau t\u1ef1 do ho\u00e1 th\u01b0\u01a1ng m\u1ea1i, trong m\u1ed9t s\u1ed1 tr\u01b0\u1eddng h\u1ee3p, WTO c\u00f2n \u0111\u1ec1 ra nh\u1eefng qui \u0111\u1ecbnh \u1ee7ng h\u1ed9 vi\u1ec7c duy tr\u00ec r\u00e0o c\u1ea3n th\u01b0\u01a1ng m\u1ea1i, v\u00ed d\u1ee5 nh\u01b0 trong tr\u01b0\u1eddng h\u1ee3p b\u1ea3o v\u1ec7 ng\u01b0\u1eddi ti\u00eau d\u00f9ng hay ng\u0103n ch\u1eb7n s\u1ef1 lan tr\u00e0n c\u1ee7a m\u1ed9t d\u1ecbch b\u1ec7nh n\u00e0o \u0111\u00f3.

WTO l\u00e0 t\u1eadp h\u1ee3p nh\u1eefng qui \u0111\u1ecbnh\u2026 N\u00f2ng c\u1ed1t c\u1ee7a t\u1ed5 ch\u1ee9c l\u00e0 c\u00e1c Hi\u1ec7p \u0111\u1ecbnh WTO \u0111\u01b0\u1ee3c ph\u1ea7n l\u1edbn

c\u00e1c c\u01b0\u1eddng qu\u1ed1c th\u01b0\u01a1ng m\u1ea1i tr\u00ean th\u1ebf gi\u1edbi \u0111\u00e0m ph\u00e1n v\u00e0 k\u00fd k\u1ebft. Nh\u1eefng v\u0103n b\u1ea3n n\u00e0y t\u1ea1o th\u00e0nh qui \u0111\u1ecbnh ph\u00e1p l\u00fd n\u1ec1n t\u1ea3ng c\u1ee7a th\u01b0\u01a1ng m\u1ea1i qu\u1ed1c t\u1ebf. \u0110\u00f3 ch\u1ee7 y\u1ebfu l\u00e0 nh\u1eefng h\u1ee3p \u0111\u1ed3ng theo \u0111\u00f3 ch\u00ednh ph\u1ee7 c\u00e1c n\u01b0\u1edbc cam k\u1ebft duy tr\u00ec ch\u00ednh s\u00e1ch th\u01b0\u01a1ng m\u1ea1i trong khu\u00f4n kh\u1ed5 nh\u1eefng v\u1ea5n \u0111\u1ec1 \u0111\u00e3 tho\u1ea3 thu\u1eadn. M\u1eb7c d\u00f9 do c\u00e1c ch\u00ednh ph\u1ee7 \u0111\u00e0m ph\u00e1n v\u00e0 k\u00fd k\u1ebft, song m\u1ee5c ti\u00eau c\u1ee7a nh\u1eefng b\u1ea3n hi\u1ec7p \u0111\u1ecbnh n\u00e0y l\u00e0 gi\u00fap \u0111\u1ee1 c\u00e1c nh\u00e0 s\u1ea3n xu\u1ea5t h\u00e0ng ho\u00e1, d\u1ecbch v\u1ee5 c\u0169ng nh\u01b0 c\u00e1c nh\u00e0 xu\u1ea5t, nh\u1eadp kh\u1ea9u tri\u1ec3n khai c\u00e1c

ho\u1ea1t \u0111\u1ed9ng c\u1ee7a m\u00ecnh, \u0111\u1ed3ng th\u1eddi v\u1eabn cho ph\u00e9p ch\u00ednh ph\u1ee7 c\u00e1c n\u01b0\u1edbc \u0111\u00e1p \u1ee9ng \u0111\u01b0\u1ee3c nh\u1eefng m\u1ee5c ti\u00eau
x\u00e3 h\u1ed9i v\u00e0 ti\u00eau chu\u1ea9n m\u00f4i tr\u01b0\u1eddng.

M\u1ee5c ti\u00eau tr\u1ecdng t\u00e2m c\u1ee7a h\u1ec7 th\u1ed1ng l\u00e0 g\u00f3p ph\u1ea7n t\u1ea1o nhi\u1ec1u \u0111i\u1ec1u ki\u1ec7n thu\u1eadn l\u1ee3i cho t\u1ef1 do th\u01b0\u01a1ng m\u1ea1i m\u00e0 v\u1eabn tr\u00e1nh \u0111\u01b0\u1ee3c nh\u1eefng t\u00e1c h\u1ea1i kh\u00f4ng mong mu\u1ed1n. \u0110\u00f3 l\u00e0 xo\u00e1 b\u1ecf nh\u1eefng r\u00e0o c\u1ea3n, th\u00f4ng b\u00e1o nh\u1eefng qui \u0111\u1ecbnh th\u01b0\u01a1ng m\u1ea1i hi\u1ec7n h\u00e0nh tr\u00ean th\u1ebf gi\u1edbi cho c\u00e1c c\u00e1 nh\u00e2n, doanh nghi\u1ec7p, v\u00e0 c\u01a1 quan nh\u00e0 n\u01b0\u1edbc, \u0111\u1ed3ng th\u1eddi \u0111\u1ea3m b\u1ea3o v\u1edbi h\u1ecd r\u1eb1ng s\u1ebd kh\u00f4ng c\u00f3 thay \u0111\u1ed5i \u0111\u1ed9t ng\u1ed9t n\u00e0o trong c\u00e1c ch\u00ednh s\u00e1ch \u0111ang \u0111\u01b0\u1ee3c \u00e1p d\u1ee5ng. N\u00f3i c\u00e1ch kh\u00e1c, c\u00e1c qui \u0111\u1ecbnh ph\u1ea3i \u201cminh b\u1ea1ch\u201d v\u00e0 d\u1ec5 d\u1ef1 \u0111o\u00e1n.

V\u00e0 cu\u1ed1i c\u00f9ng WTO gi\u00fap c\u00e1c n\u01b0\u1edbc gi\u1ea3i quy\u1ebft tranh ch\u1ea5p\u2026 \u0110\u00e2y ch\u00ednh l\u00e0 ho\u1ea1t \u0111\u1ed9ng quan tr\u1ecdng

th\u1ee9 ba c\u1ee7a WTO. Quan h\u1ec7 th\u01b0\u01a1ng m\u1ea1i th\u01b0\u1eddng l\u00e0m n\u1ea3y sinh nh\u1eefng l\u1ee3i \u00edch m\u00e2u thu\u1eabn nhau. T\u1ea5t c\u1ea3 c\u00e1c hi\u1ec7p \u0111\u1ecbnh, k\u1ec3 c\u1ea3 nh\u1eefng hi\u1ec7p \u0111\u1ecbnh \u0111\u00e3 \u0111\u01b0\u1ee3c c\u00e1c n\u01b0\u1edbc th\u00e0nh vi\u00ean WTO \u0111\u00e0m ph\u00e1n m\u1ed9t c\u00e1ch k\u1ef9 l\u01b0\u1ee1ng \u0111\u1ec1u c\u1ea7n ph\u1ea3i \u0111\u01b0\u1ee3c gi\u1ea3i th\u00edch. C\u00e1ch t\u1ed1t nh\u1ea5t \u0111\u1ec3 gi\u1ea3i quy\u1ebft tranh ch\u1ea5p l\u00e0 \u0111\u01b0a ra m\u1ed9t th\u1ee7 t\u1ee5c trung gian d\u1ef1a tr\u00ean c\u01a1 s\u1edf ph\u00e1p l\u00ed \u0111\u00e3 tho\u1ea3 thu\u1eadn. \u0110\u00e2y ch\u00ednh l\u00e0 m\u1ee5c ti\u00eau c\u1ee7a qu\u00e1 tr\u00ecnh gi\u1ea3i quy\u1ebft tranh ch\u1ea5p n\u00eau trong c\u00e1c Hi\u1ec7p \u0111\u1ecbnh c\u1ee7a WTO.

M\u1edbi ra \u0111\u1eddi v\u00e0o n\u0103m 1995 nh\u01b0ng WTO \u0111\u00e3 th\u1ef1c s\u1ef1 l\u1edbn m\u1ea1nh

WTO \u0111\u01b0\u1ee3c th\u00e0nh l\u1eadp v\u00e0o n\u0103m 1995 nh\u01b0ng h\u1ec7 th\u1ed1ng th\u01b0\u01a1ng m\u1ea1i m\u00e0 t\u1ed5 ch\u1ee9c n\u00e0y \u0111\u1ea1i di\u1ec7n th\u00ec g\u1ea7n nh\u01b0 \u0111\u00e3 t\u1ed3n t\u1ea1i t\u1eeb h\u01a1n n\u1eeda th\u1ebf k\u1ef7 nay. N\u0103m 1948, Hi\u1ec7p \u0111\u1ecbnh chung v\u1ec1 Thu\u1ebf quan v\u00e0 Th\u01b0\u01a1ng m\u1ea1i (GATT: \u201cGeneral Agreement on Tarrifs and Trade\u201d) \u0111\u00e3 \u0111\u1ec1 ra h\u00e0ng lo\u1ea1t c\u00e1c qui \u0111\u1ecbnh cho h\u1ec7 th\u1ed1ng th\u01b0\u01a1ng m\u1ea1i. V\u00e0o th\u00e1ng 5 n\u0103m 1998, t\u1ea1i H\u1ed9i ngh\u1ecb b\u1ed9 tr\u01b0\u1edfng WTO l\u1ea7n th\u1ee9 hai t\u1ed5 ch\u1ee9c t\u1ea1i Gi\u01a1nev\u01a1, h\u1ec7 th\u1ed1ng n\u00e0y \u0111\u00e3 k\u1ef7 ni\u1ec7m 50 n\u0103m ng\u00e0y ra \u0111\u1eddi c\u1ee7a m\u00ecnh.

Hi\u1ec7p \u0111\u1ecbnh chung \u0111\u00e3 nhanh ch\u00f3ng cho ra \u0111\u1eddi m\u1ed9t t\u1ed5 ch\u1ee9c th\u01b0\u01a1ng m\u1ea1i qu\u1ed1c t\u1ebf kh\u00f4ng ch\u00ednh th\u1ee9c, t\u1ed3n t\u1ea1i tr\u00ean th\u1ef1c t\u1ebf v\u1edbi t\u00ean g\u1ecdi kh\u00f4ng ch\u00ednh th\u1ee9c l\u00e0 GATT. Theo th\u1eddi gian, GATT \u0111\u00e3 tr\u01b0\u1edfng th\u00e0nh qua nhi\u1ec1u v\u00f2ng \u0111\u00e0m ph\u00e1n.

L\u00e0 v\u00f2ng \u0111\u00e0m ph\u00e1n cu\u1ed1i c\u00f9ng v\u00e0 c\u0169ng l\u00e0 v\u00f2ng \u0111\u00e0m ph\u00e1n quan tr\u1ecdng nh\u1ea5t c\u1ee7a GATT, v\u00f2ng \u0111\u00e0m
ph\u00e1n Urugoay, di\u1ec5n ra t\u1eeb n\u0103m 1986 \u0111\u1ebfn n\u0103m 1994, cu\u1ed1i c\u00f9ng \u0111\u00e3 cho ra \u0111\u1eddi WTO. N\u1ebfu nh\u01b0 tr\u01b0\u1edbc
kia GATT ch\u1ec9 bao qu\u00e1t th\u01b0\u01a1ng m\u1ea1i h\u00e0ng ho\u00e1 th\u00ec ng\u00e0y nay, WTO, c\u00f9ng nh\u1eefng Hi\u1ec7p \u0111\u1ecbnh c\u1ee7a m\u00ecnh
\u0111ang ti\u1ebfn t\u1edbi th\u01b0\u01a1ng m\u1ea1i d\u1ecbch v\u1ee5 c\u0169ng nh\u01b0 trao \u0111\u1ed5i s\u00e1ng ch\u1ebf, ph\u00e1t minh, thi\u1ebft k\u1ebf v\u00e0 m\u00f4 h\u00ecnh (s\u1edf
h\u1eefu tr\u00ed tu\u1ec7).

2. Nh\u1eefng nguy\u00ean t\u1eafc l\u00e0m n\u1ec1n t\u1ea3ng cho t\u1ed5 ch\u1ee9c th\u01b0\u01a1ng m\u1ea1i

C\u00e1c Hi\u1ec7p \u0111\u1ecbnh c\u1ee7a WTO r\u1ea5t d\u00e0i v\u00e0 ph\u1ee9c t\u1ea1p v\u00ec \u0111\u00f3 l\u00e0 nh\u1eefng v\u0103n b\u1ea3n ph\u00e1p l\u00ed qui \u0111\u1ecbnh r\u1ea5t nhi\u1ec1u l\u0129nh
v\u1ef1c ho\u1ea1t \u0111\u1ed9ng nh\u01b0: n\u00f4ng nghi\u1ec7p, h\u00e0ng d\u1ec7t may, ho\u1ea1t \u0111\u1ed9ng ng\u00e2n h\u00e0ng, vi\u1ec5n th\u00f4ng, th\u1ecb tr\u01b0\u1eddng
c\u00f4ng, ti\u00eau chu\u1ea9n c\u00f4ng nghi\u1ec7p, t\u00ednh an to\u00e0n c\u1ee7a s\u1ea3n ph\u1ea9m, qui \u0111\u1ecbnh li\u00ean quan \u0111\u1ebfn an to\u00e0n v\u1ec7 sinh
th\u1ef1c ph\u1ea9m, s\u1edf h\u1eefu tr\u00ed tu\u1ec7, v\u00e0 c\u00f2n r\u1ea5t nhi\u1ec1u l\u0129nh v\u1ef1c kh\u00e1c n\u1eefa\u2026 Tuy nhi\u00ean, c\u00f3 m\u1ed9t s\u1ed1 nguy\u00ean t\u1eafc
\u0111\u01a1n gi\u1ea3n v\u00e0 c\u01a1 b\u1ea3n l\u00e0m kim ch\u1ec9 nam c\u1ee7a t\u1ea5t c\u1ea3 c\u00e1c l\u0129nh v\u1ef1c n\u00e0y, v\u00e0 tr\u1edf th\u00e0nh n\u1ec1n t\u1ea3ng c\u1ee7a h\u1ec7
th\u1ed1ng th\u01b0\u01a1ng m\u1ea1i \u0111a bi\u00ean.

C\u00e1c nguy\u00ean t\u1eafc
H\u1ec7 th\u1ed1ng th\u01b0\u01a1ng m\u1ea1i ph\u1ea3i
\u00b7

Kh\u00f4ng ph\u00e2n bi\u1ec7t \u0111\u1ed1i x\u1eed: kh\u00f4ng m\u1ed9t n\u01b0\u1edbc n\u00e0o \u0111\u01b0\u1ee3c c\u00f3 s\u1ef1 ph\u00e2n bi\u1ec7t \u0111\u1ed1i x\u1eed gi\u1eefa c\u00e1c \u0111\u1ed1i t\u00e1c th\u01b0\u01a1ng m\u1ea1i c\u1ee7a m\u00ecnh (ngh\u0129a l\u00e0 ph\u1ea3i d\u00e0nh cho h\u1ecd m\u1ed9t c\u00e1ch c\u00f4ng b\u1eb1ng qui ch\u1ebf \u201c\u0111\u00e3i ng\u1ed9 t\u1ed1i hu\u1ec7 qu\u1ed1c\u201d hay c\u00f2n g\u1ecdi l\u00e0 qui ch\u1ebf MFN) c\u0169ng nh\u01b0 kh\u00f4ng \u0111\u01b0\u1ee3c ph\u00e2n bi\u1ec7t \u0111\u1ed1i x\u1eed gi\u1eefa h\u00e0ng ho\u00e1, d\u1ecbch v\u1ee5 v\u00e0 ng\u01b0\u1eddi n\u01b0\u1edbc m\u00ecnh v\u1edbi h\u00e0ng ho\u00e1, d\u1ecbch v\u1ee5 v\u00e0 ng\u01b0\u1eddi n\u01b0\u1edbc ngo\u00e0i (ngh\u0129a l\u00e0 ph\u1ea3i gi\u00e0nh cho h\u1ecd qui

ch\u1ebf \u201c\u0111\u1ed1i x\u1eed qu\u1ed1c gia\u201d);
\u00b7
T\u1ef1 do h\u01a1n: xo\u00e1 b\u1ecf r\u00e0o c\u1ea3n th\u00f4ng qua con \u0111\u01b0\u1eddng \u0111\u00e0m ph\u00e1n.
\u00b7

D\u1ec5 d\u1ef1 \u0111o\u00e1n: ph\u1ea3i \u0111\u1ea3m b\u1ea3o cho c\u00e1c c\u00f4ng ty, c\u00e1c nh\u00e0 \u0111\u1ea7u t\u01b0 v\u00e0 ch\u00ednh ph\u1ee7 n\u01b0\u1edbc ngo\u00e0i r\u1eb1ng s\u1ebd kh\u00f4ng \u00e1p d\u1ee5ng m\u1ed9t c\u00e1ch tu\u1ef3 ti\u1ec7n c\u00e1c h\u00e0ng r\u00e0o c\u1ea3n tr\u1edf th\u01b0\u01a1ng m\u1ea1i (g\u1ed3m h\u00e0ng r\u00e0o thu\u1ebf quan v\u00e0 phi thu\u1ebf quan); ph\u1ea7n tr\u0103m thu\u1ebf nh\u1eadp kh\u1ea9u v\u00e0 c\u00e1c cam k\u1ebft \u0111\u01b0\u1ee3c \u201cr\u00e0ng bu\u1ed9c\u201d t\u1ea1i WTO.

\u00b7

C\u1ea1nh tranh h\u01a1n: h\u1ea1n ch\u1ebf nh\u1eefng bi\u1ec7n ph\u00e1p th\u01b0\u01a1ng m\u1ea1i kh\u00f4ng l\u00e0nh m\u1ea1nh nh\u01b0 tr\u1ee3 c\u1ea5p xu\u1ea5t kh\u1ea9u, b\u00e1n ph\u00e1 gi\u00e1, ngh\u0129a l\u00e0 b\u00e1n v\u1edbi gi\u00e1 th\u1ea5p h\u01a1n gi\u00e1 th\u00e0nh s\u1ea3n ph\u1ea9m nh\u1eb1m m\u1ee5c \u0111\u00edch chi\u1ebfm th\u1ecb ph\u1ea7n;

\u00b7
D\u00e0nh \u01b0u \u0111\u00e3i cho c\u00e1c n\u01b0\u1edbc k\u00e9m ph\u00e1t tri\u1ec3n: cho h\u1ecd m\u1ed9t th\u1eddi h\u1ea1n d\u00e0i v\u00e0 linh \u0111\u1ed9ng h\u01a1n, c\u00f9ng
m\u1ed9t s\u1ed1 \u0111\u1eb7c quy\u1ec1n th\u01b0\u01a1ng m\u1ea1i.
Th\u01b0\u01a1ng m\u1ea1i kh\u00f4ng ph\u00e2n bi\u1ec7t \u0111\u1ed1i x\u1eed
1. Qui ch\u1ebf t\u1ed1i hu\u1ec7 qu\u1ed1c (MFN): \u0111\u1ed1i x\u1eed b\u00ecnh \u0111\u1eb3ng v\u1edbi c\u00e1c n\u01b0\u1edbc kh\u00e1c. Theo c\u00e1c Hi\u1ec7p \u0111\u1ecbnh c\u1ee7a

WTO, v\u1ec1 nguy\u00ean t\u1eafc, c\u00e1c qu\u1ed1c gia kh\u00f4ng th\u1ec3 ph\u00e2n bi\u1ec7t \u0111\u1ed1i x\u1eed v\u1edbi c\u00e1c \u0111\u1ed1i t\u00e1c th\u01b0\u01a1ng m\u1ea1i c\u1ee7a
m\u00ecnh. N\u1ebfu b\u1ea1n trao cho m\u1ed9t n\u01b0\u1edbc n\u00e0o \u0111\u00f3 m\u1ed9t \u0111\u1eb7c quy\u1ec1n th\u01b0\u01a1ng m\u1ea1i (v\u00ed d\u1ee5 nh\u01b0 gi\u1ea3m thu\u1ebf nh\u1eadp
kh\u1ea9u \u0111\u1ed1i v\u1edbi m\u1ed9t trong s\u1ed1 s\u1ea3n ph\u1ea9m c\u1ee7a n\u01b0\u1edbc n\u00e0y) th\u00ec b\u1ea1n c\u0169ng ph\u1ea3i \u0111\u1ed1i x\u1eed t\u01b0\u01a1ng t\u1ef1 nh\u01b0 v\u1eady
v\u1edbi t\u1ea5t c\u1ea3 c\u00e1c th\u00e0nh vi\u00ean c\u00f2n l\u1ea1i c\u1ee7a WTO.

Nguy\u00ean t\u1eafc n\u00e0y c\u00f3 t\u00ean g\u1ecdi T\u1ed1i hu\u1ec7 qu\u1ed1c (MFN) (xem ph\u1ea7n \u0111\u00f3ng khung). \u0110\u00e2y l\u00e0 nguy\u00ean t\u1eafc quan
tr\u1ecdng v\u00ec n\u00f3 \u0111\u01b0\u1ee3c qui \u0111\u1ecbnh ngay t\u1ea1i \u0111i\u1ec1u \u0111\u1ea7u ti\u00ean c\u1ee7a Hi\u1ec7p \u0111\u1ecbnh chung v\u1ec1 Thu\u1ebf quan v\u00e0 Th\u01b0\u01a1ng
m\u1ea1i, hi\u1ec7p \u0111\u1ecbnh \u0111\u00f3ng vai tr\u00f2 \u0111i\u1ec1u ti\u1ebft th\u01b0\u01a1ng m\u1ea1i h\u00e0ng ho\u00e1. \u0110\u00e2y c\u0169ng l\u00e0 \u0111i\u1ec1u kho\u1ea3n \u01b0u ti\u00ean c\u1ee7a
c\u00e1c Hi\u1ec7p \u0111\u1ecbnh quan tr\u1ecdng c\u1ee7a WTO. M\u1eb7c d\u00f9 m\u1ed7i hi\u1ec7p \u0111\u1ecbnh s\u1eed d\u1ee5ng nh\u1eefng thu\u1eadt ng\u1eef \u0111\u00f4i ch\u00fat
kh\u00e1c nhau : \u0111i\u1ec1u 2 c\u1ee7a Hi\u1ec7p \u0111\u1ecbnh chung v\u1ec1 Th\u01b0\u01a1ng m\u1ea1i D\u1ecbch v\u1ee5 (GATS), \u0111i\u1ec1u 4 c\u1ee7a Hi\u1ec7p \u0111\u1ecbnh v\u1ec1
nh\u1eefng v\u1ea5n \u0111\u1ec1 c\u1ee7a quy\u1ec1n s\u1edf h\u1eefu tr\u00ed tu\u1ec7 li\u00ean quan \u0111\u1ebfn th\u01b0\u01a1ng m\u1ea1i (TRIPs). Ba hi\u1ec7p \u0111\u1ecbnh tr\u00ean
\u0111\u1ed3ng th\u1eddi chi ph\u1ed1i ba l\u0129nh v\u1ef1c m\u1eadu d\u1ecbch ch\u00ednh m\u00e0 WTO can thi\u1ec7p.

T\u1ea1i sao ng\u01b0\u1eddi ta l\u1ea1i n\u00f3i t\u1edbi \u201cQuy ch\u1ebf t\u1ed1i hu\u1ec7 qu\u1ed1c\u201d?

\u0110i\u1ec1u n\u00e0y c\u00f3 v\u1ebb nh\u01b0 l\u00e0 m\u00e2u thu\u1eabn. N\u00f3 l\u00e0m cho ng\u01b0\u1eddi ta ngh\u0129 r\u1eb1ng WTO \u00e1p d\u1ee5ng m\u1ed9t ch\u1ebf \u0111\u1ed9 \u0111\u00e3i ng\u1ed9 \u0111\u1eb7c bi\u1ec7t. Tuy nhi\u00ean, \u0111\u1ed1i v\u1edbi WTO, nguy\u00ean t\u1eafc n\u00e0y th\u1ef1c ra d\u00f9ng \u0111\u1ec3 ch\u1ec9 s\u1ef1 kh\u00f4ng ph\u00e2n bi\u1ec7t \u0111\u1ed1i x\u1eed, ngh\u0129a l\u00e0 \u0111\u1ed1i x\u1eed c\u00f4ng b\u1eb1ng v\u1edbi h\u1ea7u h\u1ebft c\u00e1c n\u01b0\u1edbc kh\u00e1c.

Sau \u0111\u00e2y l\u00e0 c\u01a1 ch\u1ebf ho\u1ea1t \u0111\u1ed9ng c\u1ee7a nguy\u00ean t\u1eafc n\u00e0y. M\u1ed7i th\u00e0nh vi\u00ean ph\u1ea3i \u0111\u1ed1i x\u1eed v\u1edbi c\u00e1c th\u00e0nh vi\u00ean kh\u00e1c trong t\u1ed5 ch\u1ee9c m\u1ed9t c\u00e1ch c\u00f4ng b\u1eb1ng, nh\u01b0 nh\u1eefng \u0111\u1ed1i t\u00e1c th\u01b0\u01a1ng m\u1ea1i \u201c\u01b0u ti\u00ean nh\u1ea5t\u201d. N\u1ebfu m\u1ed9t n\u01b0\u1edbc d\u00e0nh cho m\u1ed9t \u0111\u1ed1i t\u00e1c th\u01b0\u01a1ng m\u1ea1i c\u1ee7a m\u00ecnh m\u1ed9t s\u1ed1 \u01b0u \u0111\u00e3i th\u00ec n\u01b0\u1edbc \u0111\u00f3 ph\u1ea3i \u0111\u1ed1i x\u1eed t\u01b0\u01a1ng t\u1ef1 nh\u01b0 v\u1eady v\u1edbi t\u1ea5t c\u1ea3 c\u00e1c th\u00e0nh vi\u00ean c\u00f2n l\u1ea1i c\u1ee7a WTO \u0111\u1ec3 t\u1ea5t c\u1ea3 c\u00e1c qu\u1ed1c gia \u0111\u1ec1u \u201c\u0111\u01b0\u1ee3c \u01b0u ti\u00ean nh\u1ea5t\u201d.

Qui ch\u1ebf t\u1ed1i hu\u1ec7 qu\u1ed1c kh\u00f4ng ph\u1ea3i l\u00fac n\u00e0o c\u0169ng \u0111\u1ed3ng ngh\u0129a v\u1edbi vi\u1ec7c b\u00ecnh \u0111\u1eb3ng trong \u0111\u1ed1i x\u1eed. C\u00e1c hi\u1ec7p \u01b0\u1edbc song ph\u01b0\u01a1ng \u0111\u1ea7u ti\u00ean qui \u0111\u1ecbnh v\u1ec1 qui ch\u1ebf n\u00e0y \u0111\u00e3 cho ra \u0111\u1eddi nh\u1eefng c\u00e2u l\u1ea1c b\u1ed9 ch\u1ec9 d\u00e0nh cho c\u00e1c \u0111\u1ed1i t\u00e1c th\u01b0\u01a1ng m\u1ea1i \u201c\u01b0u ti\u00ean nh\u1ea5t\u201d c\u1ee7a m\u1ed9t n\u01b0\u1edbc. Trong khu\u00f4n kh\u1ed5 c\u1ee7a GATT m\u00e0 nay l\u00e0 WTO, c\u00e2u l\u1ea1c b\u1ed9 t\u1ed1i hu\u1ec7 qu\u1ed1c kh\u00f4ng c\u00f2n b\u1ecb h\u1ea1n ch\u1ebf n\u1eefa. Theo nguy\u00ean t\u1eafc MFN, m\u1ed7i qu\u1ed1c gia ph\u1ea3i \u0111\u1ed1i x\u1eed m\u1ed9t c\u00e1ch b\u00ecnh \u0111\u1eb3ng v\u1edbi to\u00e0n b\u1ed9 140 th\u00e0nh vi\u00ean kh\u00e1c c\u1ee7a WTO.

Tuy nhi\u00ean c\u0169ng c\u00f3 tr\u01b0\u1eddng h\u1ee3p ngo\u1ea1i l\u1ec7\u2026

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