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Published by api-3849455

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Published by: api-3849455 on Oct 19, 2008
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PH\u1ea6N I
C\u01a0 S\u1ede DI TRUY\u1ec0N
M\u1ede \u0110\u1ea6U
L\u01af\u1ee2C S\u1eec PH\u00c1T TRI\u1ec2N C\u1ee6A DI TRUY\u1ec0N H\u1eccC
V\u00c0 K\u1ef8 THU\u1eacT DI TRUY\u1ec0N
1.1- L\u0128NH V\u1ef0C NGHI\u00caN C\u1ee8U C\u1ee6A DI TRUY\u1ec0N V\u00c0 C\u00d4NG NGH\u1ec6 DI TRUY\u1ec0N

Thu\u1eadt ng\u1eef \u201cdi truy\u1ec1n\u201d (geneties) xu\u1ea5t ph\u00e1t t\u1eeb g\u1ed1c latinh l\u00e0 gentikos (ngu\u1ed3n g\u1ed1c). Di truy\u1ec1n h\u1ecdc l\u00e0 m\u1ed9t b\u1ed9 m\u00f4n c\u1ee7a sinh h\u1ecdc, chuy\u00ean\u0111i s\u00e2u nghi\u00ean c\u1ee9u hai\u0111\u1eb7c t\u00ednh c\u01a1 b\u1ea3n c\u1ee7a s\u1ef1 s\u1ed1ng l\u00e0 t\u00ednh di truy\u1ec1n v\u00e0 t\u00ednh bi\u1ebfn d\u1ecb.

T\u00ednh di truy\u1ec1n bi\u1ec3u hi\u1ec7n\u1edf s\u1ef1 gi\u1ed1ng nhau c\u1ee7a c\u00e1c t\u00ednh tr\u1ea1ng gi\u1eefa th\u1ebf h\u1ec7 n\u00e0y v\u00e0 th\u1ebf h\u1ec7 kh\u00e1c.\u0110\u1eb7c t\u00ednh di truy\u1ec1n cho ph\u00e9p th\u1ebf gi\u1edbi sinh v\u1eadt b\u1ea3o to\u00e0n n\u00f2i gi\u1ed1ng. Tr\u1ea3i qua nhi\u1ec1u th\u1ebfh\u1ec7n\u1ed1i ti\u1ebfp nhau nh\u01b0ng nh\u1eefng \u0111\u1eb7c t\u00ednh di truy\u1ec1n kh\u00f4ng b\u1ecb m\u1ea5t\u0111i, th\u1ebf h\u1ec7 con ch\u00e1u lu\u00f4n c\u00f3 nh\u1eefng\u0111\u1eb7c\u0111i\u1ec3m gi\u1ed1ng b\u1ed1 m\u1eb9, \u00f4ng b\u00e0.

C\u00e1c sinh gi\u1edbi s\u1ed1ng trong\u0111i\u1ec1u ki\u1ec7n m\u00f4i tr\u01b0\u1eddng lu\u00f4n c\u00f3 nh\u1eefng bi\u1ebfn\u0111\u1ed9ng nh\u01b0 s\u1ef1 thay\u0111\u1ed5i th\u1eddi ti\u1ebft, nhi\u1ec7t\u0111\u1ed9 m\u00f4i tr\u01b0\u1eddng, l\u01b0\u1ee3ng n\u01b0\u1edbc, l\u01b0\u1ee3ng th\u1ee9c\u0103n v\u00e0 s\u1ef1 \u0111\u1ea5u tranh sinh t\u1ed3n gi\u1eefa c\u00e1c lo\u00e0i.\u0110\u1ec3 th\u00edch nghi v\u1edbi\u0111i\u1ec1u ki\u1ec7n s\u1ed1ng, c\u00e1c c\u01a1 th\u1ec3 s\u1ed1ng c\u0169ng c\u00f3 nh\u1eefng thay\u0111\u1ed5i, l\u00e0m xu\u1ea5t hi\u1ec7n nh\u1eefng t\u00ednh tr\u1ea1ng kh\u00e1c nhau gi\u1eefa c\u00e1c th\u1ebf h\u1ec7,\u0111\u00f3 l\u00e0 s\u1ef1 bi\u1ebfn d\u1ecb. Bi\u1ebfn d\u1ecb bi\u1ec3u hi\u1ec7n s\u1ef1 sai kh\u00e1c c\u1ee7a th\u1ebf h\u1ec7 con ch\u00e1u so v\u1edbi th\u1ebf h\u1ec7 b\u1ed1 m\u1eb9 \u0111\u1ed3ng th\u1eddi s\u1ef1 sai kh\u00e1c c\u1ee7a m\u1ed9t c\u00e1 th\u1ec3 n\u00e0o\u0111\u00f3 so v\u1edbi c\u00e1c c\u00e1 th\u1ec3 kh\u00e1c c\u00f9ng\u0111\u00e0n.

Di truy\u1ec1n h\u1ecdc th\u1ef1c s\u1ef1 tr\u1edf th\u00e0nh m\u1ed9t b\u1ed9 m\u00f4n khoa h\u1ecdc \u0111\u1ed9c l\u1eadp k\u1ec3t\u1eeb nh\u1eefng n\u0103m 1900 - 35 n\u0103m sau ng\u00e0y Mendel c\u00f4ng b\u1ed1 c\u00f4ng tr\u00ecnh \u201cC\u00e1c th\u00ed nghi\u1ec7m lai\u1edf th\u1ef1c v\u1eadt\u201d. T\u1eeb\u0111\u00f3\u0111\u1ebfn nay, c\u00f9ng v\u1edbi s\u1ef1 ph\u00e1t tri\u1ec3n m\u1ea1nh m\u1ebd c\u1ee7a c\u00e1c ngh\u00e0nh khoa h\u1ecdc kh\u00e1c nh\u01b0 v\u1eadt l\u00fd, to\u00e1n h\u1ecdc, h\u00f3a h\u1ecdc, di truy\u1ec1n h\u1ecdc\u0111\u00e3 v\u00e0

\u0111ang kh\u00e1m ph\u00e1 r\u1ea5t nhi\u1ec1u quy lu\u1eadt v\u1ec1s\u1ef1t\u1ed3n t\u1ea1i v\u00e0 l\u01b0u truy\u1ec1n s\u1ef1s\u1ed1ng v\u00e0 tr\u1edf
th\u00e0nh m\u1ed9t m\u0169i nh\u1ecdn trong nghi\u00ean c\u1ee9u sinh h\u1ecdc.

Nh\u1eefng th\u00e0nh t\u1ef1u r\u1ef1c r\u1ee1 c\u1ee7a di truy\u1ec1n h\u1ecdc\u0111\u00e3\u0111em l\u1ea1i nh\u1eefng nh\u1eadn th\u1ee9c m\u1edbi v\u1ec1 c\u1ea5u t\u1ea1o v\u00e0 s\u1ef1 v\u1eadn h\u00e0nh b\u1ed9 m\u00e1y di truy\u1ec1n c\u1ee7a c\u01a1 th\u1ec3 s\u1ed1ng. C\u00f9ng v\u1edbi s\u1ef1 ph\u00e1t tri\u1ec3n m\u1ea1nh m\u1ebd c\u1ee7a di truy\u1ec1n h\u1ecdc, m\u1ed9t l\u0129nh v\u1ef1c nghi\u00ean c\u1ee9u m\u1edbi c\u1ee7a di truy\u1ec1n h\u1ecdc ra\u0111\u1eddi,\u0111\u00f3 l\u00e0 k\u1ef9 thu\u1eadt di truy\u1ec1n hay c\u00f2n g\u1ecdi l\u00e0 c\u00f4ng ngh\u1ec7 gen ho\u1eb7c c\u00f4ng ngh\u1ec7 di truy\u1ec1n (genetic engineering).

- 2 -

C\u00f3 th\u1ec3 n\u00f3i, k\u1ef9 thu\u1eadt di truy\u1ec1n l\u00e0 m\u1ed9t t\u1eadp h\u1ee3p c\u1ee7a nhi\u1ec1u k\u1ef9 thu\u1eadt nh\u01b0 h\u00f3a h\u1ecdc, sinh h\u1ecdc ph\u00e2n t\u1eed, vi sinh v\u1eadt h\u1ecdc,... m\u00e0 trong\u0111\u00f3, vai tr\u00f2 h\u00e0ng\u0111\u1ea7u thu\u1ed9c v\u1ec1 c\u00e1c t\u01b0 duy v\u00e0 ph\u01b0\u01a1ng ph\u00e1p c\u1ee7a di truy\u1ec1n.

C\u00f4ng ngh\u1ec7 di truy\u1ec1n s\u1eed d\u1ee5ng c\u00e1c ph\u01b0\u01a1ng ph\u00e1p sinh h\u1ecdc ph\u00e2n t\u1eed \u0111\u1ec3 t\u00e1ch DNA t\u1eeb m\u1ed9t c\u01a1 th\u1ec3 s\u1ed1ng v\u00e0 sau\u0111\u00f3 c\u1eaft, n\u1ed1i c\u00e1c gen tr\u00ean DNA. B\u1eb1ng c\u00e1ch nh\u01b0 v\u1eady, ng\u01b0\u1eddi ta c\u00f3 th\u1ec3 lo\u1ea1i b\u1ecf c\u00e1c gen kh\u00f4ng mong mu\u1ed1n v\u00e0\u0111\u01b0a v\u00e0o c\u00e1c gen m\u1edbi\u0111\u1eb7c hi\u1ec7u theo ch\u1ee7 \u00fd l\u1ef1a ch\u1ecdn. C\u00e1c thao t\u00e1c c\u1eaft, n\u1ed1i tr\u00ean DNA\u0111\u01b0\u1ee3c th\u1ef1c hi\u1ec7n b\u00ean ngo\u00e0i c\u01a1 th\u1ec3 s\u1ed1ng trong c\u00e1c\u1ed1ng nghi\u1ec7m (in vitro). Ph\u00e2n t\u1eed DNA m\u1edbi

\u0111\u01b0\u1ee3c t\u1ea1o d\u1ef1ng sau c\u00e1c thao t\u00e1c c\u1eaft, n\u1ed1i c\u00f3 m\u1ed9t s\u1ed1 \u0111\u1eb7c \u0111i\u1ec3m kh\u00e1c v\u1edbi ph\u00e2n t\u1eed

DNA ban\u0111\u1ea7u\u0111\u01b0\u1ee3c t\u00e1ch ra t\u1eeb t\u1ebf b\u00e0o s\u1ed1ng,\u0111\u01b0\u1ee3c g\u1ecdi l\u00e0 DNA t\u00e1i t\u1ed5 h\u1ee3p v\u00e0 k\u1ef9 thu\u1eadt n\u00e0y\u0111\u01b0\u1ee3c g\u1ecdi l\u00e0 k\u1ef9 thu\u1eadt t\u00e1i t\u1ed5h\u1ee3p DNA. S\u1ef1 t\u00e1i t\u1ed5h\u1ee3p DNA \u0111\u01b0\u1ee3c \u0111\u00e1nh gi\u00e1 l\u00e0 th\u00e0nh c\u00f4ng ch\u1ec9 sau khi\u0111\u01b0a\u0111\u01b0\u1ee3c ph\u00e2n t\u1eed DNA t\u00e1i t\u1ed5 h\u1ee3p v\u00e0o trong t\u1ebf b\u00e0o s\u1ed1ng v\u00e0 ch\u00fang bi\u1ec3u hi\u1ec7n c\u00e1c ho\u1ea1t t\u00ednh di truy\u1ec1n v\u00e0\u1edf th\u1ebf h\u1ec7 con ch\u00e1u s\u1ebd mang ph\u00e2n t\u1eed DNA t\u00e1i t\u1ed5 h\u1ee3p.

C\u00f3 th\u1ec3 n\u00f3i: K\u1ef9 thu\u1eadt di truy\u1ec1n l\u00e0 s\u1ef1 thao t\u00e1c b\u1ed9 m\u00e1y di truy\u1ec1n c\u1ee7a m\u1ed9t
c\u01a1 th\u1ec3 s\u1ed1ng b\u1eb1ng c\u00e1ch th\u00eam v\u00e0o hay lo\u1ea1i b\u1edbt gen\u0111\u1eb7c hi\u1ec7u.
1.2- GIAI\u0110O\u1ea0N DI TRUY\u1ec0N SAU MENDEL

Ph\u00e1t minh c\u1ee7a Mendel\u0111\u00e3\u0111\u1eb7t n\u1ec1n m\u00f3ng cho di truy\u1ec1n h\u1ecdc. Tuy nhi\u00ean,\u1edf th\u1eddi\u0111i\u1ec3m m\u00e0 Mendel c\u00f4ng b\u1ed1 c\u00f4ng tr\u00ecnh nghi\u00ean c\u1ee9u c\u1ee7a m\u00ecnh, m\u1ed9t ph\u1ea7n do ch\u01b0a hi\u1ec3u r\u00f5\u0111\u01b0\u1ee3c c\u01a1 ch\u1ebf ph\u00e2n b\u00e0o, c\u00e1c nh\u00e0 khoa h\u1ecdc ch\u01b0a th\u1ec3 hi\u1ec3u v\u00e0\u0111\u00e1nh gi\u00e1\u0111\u00fang m\u1ee9c t\u1ea7m quan tr\u1ecdng c\u1ee7a ph\u00e1t minh n\u00e0y.

Cu\u1ed1i th\u1ebf k\u1ef7 XIX, 5 n\u0103m sau ng\u00e0y c\u00f4ng b\u1ed1 c\u00f4ng tr\u00ecnh c\u1ee7a Mendel (1870), c\u00e1c giai\u0111o\u1ea1n c\u1ee7a qu\u00e1 tr\u00ecnh ph\u00e2n b\u00e0o nguy\u00ean ph\u00e2n v\u00e0 sau\u0111\u00f3, ph\u00e2n b\u00e0o gi\u1ea3m nhi\u1ec5m (1890)\u0111\u00e3\u0111\u01b0\u1ee3c m\u00f4 t\u1ea3 m\u1ed9t c\u00e1ch chi ti\u1ebft. D\u01b0\u1edbi k\u00ednh hi\u1ec3n vi, c\u00e1c nh\u00e0 nghi\u00ean c\u1ee9u\u0111\u00e3 quan s\u00e1t th\u1ea5y c\u00e1c nhi\u1ec5m s\u1eafc th\u1ec3 v\u00e0 s\u1ef1 ph\u00e2n chia c\u00e1c nhi\u1ec5m s\u1eafc th\u1ec3 trong qu\u00e1 tr\u00ecnh ph\u00e2n b\u00e0o.

N\u0103m 1902-1903, W.S Sutton, Th. Bovery v\u00e0 m\u1ed9t s\u1ed1 nh\u00e0 khoa h\u1ecdc kh\u00e1c
\u0111\u00e3 ti\u1ebfn h\u00e0nh c\u00e1c nghi\u00ean c\u1ee9u \u0111\u1ed9c l\u1eadp, c\u0169ng \u0111\u00e3 ph\u00e1t hi\u1ec7n c\u00f3 s\u1ef1t\u01b0\u01a1ng quan \u0111\u1ed3ng
\u0111i\u1ec7u gi\u1eefa s\u1ef1bi\u1ec3u hi\u1ec7n c\u1ee7a nhi\u1ec5m s\u1eafc th\u1ec3 trong ph\u00e2n b\u00e0o v\u1edbi s\u1ef1bi\u1ec3u hi\u1ec7n c\u1ee7a

c\u00e1c t\u00ednh tr\u1ea1ng theo Mendel. Thu\u1eadt ng\u1eef \u201cgen\u201d do nh\u00e0 khoa h\u1ecdc\u0110an M\u1ea1ch W. Johansen n\u00eau ra n\u0103m 1909. H\u1ecdc thuy\u1ebft di truy\u1ec1n nhi\u1ec5m s\u1eafc th\u1ec3 ra\u0111\u1eddi: C\u00e1c gen\u0111\u01b0\u1ee3c ch\u1ee9ng minh l\u00e0 n\u1eb1m tr\u00ean nhi\u1ec5m s\u1eafc th\u1ec3, chi\u1ebfm m\u1ed9t v\u1ecb tr\u00ed x\u00e1c\u0111\u1ecbnh, x\u1ebfp theo\u0111\u01b0\u1eddng th\u1eb3ng v\u00e0 ch\u00fang ch\u1ecbu s\u1ef1 ph\u00e2n li nh\u01b0 nhi\u1ec5m s\u1eafc th\u1ec3.

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