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Giao Trinh San Pham

Giao Trinh San Pham

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Published by api-3849455

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Published by: api-3849455 on Oct 19, 2008
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial


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S\u1ea3n Ph\u1ea9m D\u1ea7u M\u1ecf Th\u01b0\u01a1ng Ph\u1ea9m
Ch\u01b0\u01a1ng I
NHI\u00caN LI\u1ec6U CHO\u0110\u1ed8NG C\u01a0 X\u0102NG
1.1. Gi\u1edbi thi\u1ec7u chung v\u1ec1 nhi\u00ean li\u1ec7u cho\u0111\u1ed9ng c\u01a1 x\u0103ng

Nhi\u00ean li\u1ec7u d\u00f9ng cho\u0111\u1ed9ng c\u01a1 x\u0103ng\u0111\u01b0\u1ee3c g\u1ecdi l\u00e0 x\u0103ng,\u0111\u00e2y l\u00e0 m\u1ed9t h\u1ed7n h\u1ee3p ch\u1ee9a nhi\u1ec1u c\u00e1c h\u1ee3p ch\u1ea5t kh\u00e1c nhau. Khi nghi\u00ean c\u1ee9u v\u1ec1 th\u00e0nh ph\u1ea7n ho\u00e1 h\u1ecdc c\u1ee7a d\u1ea7u m\u1ecf, ph\u00e2n\u0111o\u1ea1n d\u1ea7u m\u1ecf n\u00f3i chung hay c\u1ee7a x\u0103ng th\u01b0\u01a1ng ph\u1ea9m n\u00f3i ri\u00eang ng\u01b0\u1eddi ta th\u01b0\u1eddng chia th\u00e0nh ph\u1ea7n c\u1ee7a n\u00f3 th\u00e0nh hai nh\u00f3m ch\u1ea5t ch\u1ee7 y\u1ebfu\u0111\u00f3 l\u00e0 c\u00e1c h\u1ee3p ch\u1ea5t hydrocacbon v\u00e0 c\u00e1c h\u1ee3p ch\u1ea5t phi hydrocacbon.

Nhi\u00ean li\u1ec7u cho\u0111\u1ed9ng c\u01a1 x\u0103ng l\u00e0 m\u1ed9t s\u1ea3n ph\u1ea9m quan tr\u1ecdng c\u1ee7a nh\u00e0 m\u00e1y l\u1ecdc d\u1ea7u, n\u00f3\u0111\u00e3 tr\u1edf th\u00e0nh m\u1ed9t m\u1eb7t h\u00e0ng quen thu\u1ed9c trong\u0111\u1eddi s\u1ed1ng sinh ho\u1ea1t h\u00e0ng ng\u00e0y c\u1ee7a con ng\u01b0\u1eddi c\u0169ng nh\u01b0 ho\u1ea1t\u0111\u1ed9ng s\u1ea3n xu\u1ea5t trong c\u00f4ng nghi\u1ec7p.

\u0110\u1ed9ng c\u01a1x\u0103ng ra \u0111\u1eddi s\u1edbm h\u01a1n \u0111\u1ed9ng c\u01a1 Diesel (\u0111\u01b0\u1ee3c ph\u00e1t minh ra \u0111\u1ed3ng th\u1eddi \u1edf

Ph\u00e1p v\u00e0\u0110\u1ee9c v\u00e0o kho\u1ea3ng 1860), n\u00f3\u0111\u00e3 ph\u00e1t tri\u1ec3n m\u1ea1nh m\u1ebb t\u1eeb sau nh\u1eefng n\u0103m 50 c\u1ee7a th\u1ebf k\u1ef7 tr\u01b0\u1edbc. V\u1edbi n\u1ec1n c\u00f4ng nghi\u1ec7p ch\u1ebf t\u1ea1o \u00f4 t\u00f4 hi\u1ec7n\u0111\u1ea1i nh\u01b0 ng\u00e0y nay\u0111\u00e3 cho ra\u0111\u1eddi nhi\u1ec1u ch\u1ee7ng lo\u1ea1i v\u1edbi c\u00f4ng su\u1ea5t kh\u00e1c nhau v\u00e0\u0111\u01b0\u1ee3c \u00e1p d\u1ee5ng trong nhi\u1ec1u l\u0129nh v\u1ef1c c\u1ee7a

\u0111\u1eddis\u1ed1ng s\u1ea3n xu\u1ea5t v\u00e0 sinh ho\u1ea1tc\u1ee7a con ng\u01b0\u1eddi.

C\u00f9ng v\u1edbi s\u1ef1 gia t\u0103ng v\u1ec1 s\u1ed1 l\u01b0\u1ee3ng\u0111\u1ed9ng c\u01a1 x\u0103ng, nhu c\u1ea7u v\u1ec1 x\u0103ng nhi\u00ean li\u1ec7u ng\u00e0y c\u00e0ng t\u0103ng nhanh, \u0111i\u1ec1u n\u00e0y \u0111\u00e3 mang \u0111\u1ebfn cho c\u00e1c nh\u00e0 s\u1ea3n xu\u1ea5t nhi\u00ean li\u1ec7u nh\u1eefng c\u01a1 h\u1ed9i v\u00e0 c\u1ea3 nh\u1eefng th\u00e1ch th\u1ee9c m\u1edbi, b\u1edfi trong th\u1ef1c t\u1ebf, b\u00ean c\u1ea1nh nh\u1eefng l\u1ee3i \u00edch m\u00e0\u0111\u1ed9ng c\u01a1 n\u00e0y mang l\u1ea1i cho con ng\u01b0\u1eddi th\u00ec\u0111\u1ed3ng th\u1eddi n\u00f3 c\u0169ng th\u1ea3i ra m\u00f4i tr\u01b0\u1eddng m\u1ed9t l\u01b0\u1ee3ng l\u1edbn c\u00e1c ch\u1ea5t\u0111\u1ed9c h\u1ea1i l\u00e0m\u1ea3nh h\u01b0\u1edfng\u0111\u1ebfn s\u1ee9c kho\u1ebb v\u00e0 c\u1ea3 m\u00f4i tr\u01b0\u1eddng sinh th\u00e1i.

V\u00ec v\u1eady x\u0103ng th\u01b0\u01a1ng ph\u1ea9m b\u1eaft bu\u1ed9c ph\u1ea3i b\u1ea3o\u0111\u1ea3m\u0111\u01b0\u1ee3c c\u00e1c y\u00eau c\u1ea7u kh\u00f4ng
nh\u1eefng li\u00ean quan\u0111\u1ebfn qu\u00e1 tr\u00ecnh ch\u00e1y trong\u0111\u1ed9ng c\u01a1, hi\u1ec7u su\u1ea5t nhi\u1ec7t m\u00e0 c\u00f2n ph\u1ea3i b\u1ea3o
\u0111\u1ea3m c\u00e1c y\u00eau c\u1ea7u v\u1ec1b\u1ea3o v\u1ec7 m\u00f4i tr\u01b0\u1eddng.
Th\u00f4ng th\u01b0\u1eddng x\u0103ng th\u01b0\u01a1ng ph\u1ea9m c\u1ea7n\u0111\u1ea1t\u0111\u01b0\u1ee3c c\u00e1c y\u00eau c\u1ea7u c\u01a1 b\u1ea3n nh\u01b0 sau:
\ue000Kh\u1edfi\u0111\u1ed9ng t\u1ed1t khi\u0111ang\u1edf nhi\u1ec7t\u0111\u1ed9 th\u1ea5p.
\ue000\u0110\u1ed9ng c\u01a1ho\u1ea1t \u0111\u1ed9ng kh\u00f4ng b\u1ecb k\u00edch n\u1ed5.
ThS. Tr\u01b0\u01a1ng H\u1eefu Tr\u00ec
S\u1ea3n Ph\u1ea9m D\u1ea7u M\u1ecf Th\u01b0\u01a1ng Ph\u1ea9m

\ue000Kh\u00f4ng k\u1ebft t\u1ee7a, t\u1ea1o b\u0103ng trong b\u00ecnh ch\u1ee9a v\u00e0 c\u1ea3 trong b\u1ed9 ch\u1ebf ho\u00e0 kh\u00ed.
\ue000Kh\u00f4ng t\u1ea1o n\u00fat h\u01a1i trong h\u1ec7 th\u1ed1ng cung c\u1ea5p nhi\u00ean li\u1ec7u.
\ue000D\u1ea7u b\u00f4i tr\u01a1n b\u1ecb pha lo\u00e3ng b\u1edfi x\u0103ng l\u00e0 \u00edt nh\u1ea5t.
\ue000Tr\u1ecb s\u1ed1 octan \u00edt b\u1ecb thay\u0111\u1ed5i khi thay\u0111\u1ed5i t\u1ed1c \u0111\u1ed9 \u0111\u1ed9ng c\u01a1.
\ue000 C\u00e1c ch\u1ea5t\u0111\u1ed9c h\u1ea1i th\u1ea3i ra m\u00f4i tr\u01b0\u1eddng c\u00e0ng \u00edt c\u00e0ng t\u1ed1t.

X\u0103ng nhi\u00ean li\u1ec7u thu nh\u1eadn\u0111\u01b0\u1ee3c trong c\u00e1c nh\u00e0 m\u00e1y l\u1ecdc d\u1ea7u, ban\u0111\u1ea7u ch\u1ec9 t\u1eeb ph\u00e2n x\u01b0\u1edfng ch\u01b0ng c\u1ea5t kh\u00ed quy\u1ec3n, tuy nhi\u00ean hi\u1ec7u su\u1ea5t thu x\u0103ng t\u1eeb qu\u00e1 tr\u00ecnh n\u00e0y r\u1ea5t th\u1ea5p ch\u1ec9 v\u00e0o kho\u1ea3ng 15% kh\u1ed1i l\u01b0\u1ee3ng d\u1ea7u th\u00f4 ban\u0111\u1ea7u.

Khi nhu c\u1ea7u v\u1ec1 x\u0103ng t\u0103ng l\u00ean th\u00ec ph\u00e2n\u0111o\u1ea1n n\u00e0y kh\u00f4ng \u0111\u1ee7 \u0111\u1ec3 cung c\u1ea5p cho c\u00e1c nhu c\u1ea7u th\u1ef1c t\u1ebf, v\u00ec v\u1eady b\u1eaft bu\u1ed9c con ng\u01b0\u1eddi ph\u1ea3i ch\u1ebf bi\u1ebfn c\u00e1c ph\u1ea7n thu kh\u00e1c nh\u1eb1m thu h\u1ed3i x\u0103ng v\u1edbi hi\u1ec7u su\u1ea5t cao h\u01a1n,\u0111i\u1ec1u n\u00e0y\u0111\u00e3 l\u00e0m xu\u1ea5t hi\u1ec7n c\u00e1c ph\u00e2n x\u01b0\u1edfng kh\u00e1c nh\u01b0ph\u00e2n x\u01b0\u1edfng cr\u1eafckinh, alkyl ho\u00e1 . . .

Ngo\u00e0i l\u00fd do v\u1eeba n\u00eau\u1edf tr\u00ean th\u00ec do y\u00eau c\u1ea7u v\u1ec1 hi\u1ec7u su\u1ea5t c\u1ee7a\u0111\u1ed9ng c\u01a1 ng\u00e0y c\u00e0ng t\u0103ng v\u00e0 ch\u1ea5t l\u01b0\u1ee3ng x\u0103ng ng\u00e0y c\u00e0ng cao n\u00ean c\u00e1c nh\u00e0 s\u1ea3n xu\u1ea5t nhi\u00ean li\u1ec7u ph\u1ea3i\u0111\u01b0a ra nhi\u1ec1u qu\u00e1 tr\u00ecnh s\u1ea3n xu\u1ea5t kh\u00e1c nh\u1eb1m\u0111\u1ea3m b\u1ea3o c\u00e1c y\u00eau c\u1ea7u c\u1ee7a x\u0103ng th\u01b0\u01a1ng ph\u1ea9m.

Th\u1ef1c t\u1ebf trong c\u00e1c nh\u00e0 m\u00e1y l\u1ecdc d\u1ea7u hi\u1ec7n nay x\u0103ng th\u01b0\u01a1ng ph\u1ea9m\u0111\u01b0\u1ee3c ph\u1ed1i tr\u1ed9n t\u1eeb
nh\u1eefng ngu\u1ed3n sau:

\ue000X\u0103ng c\u1ee7a qu\u00e1 tr\u00ecnh FCC
\ue000 Reformat
\ue000X\u0103ng ch\u01b0ng c\u1ea5t tr\u1ef1c ti\u1ebfp
\ue000X\u0103ng c\u1ee7a qu\u00e1 tr\u00ecnh isomer ho\u00e1
\ue000X\u0103ng c\u1ee7a qu\u00e1 tr\u00ecnh gi\u1ea3m nh\u1edbt, c\u1ed1c ho\u00e1, c\u00e1c qu\u00e1 tr\u00ecnh x\u1eed l\u00fd b\u1eb1ng hydro
\ue000X\u0103ng thu\u0111\u01b0\u1ee3c t\u1eeb c\u00e1c qu\u00e1 tr\u00ecnh t\u1ed5ng h\u1ee3p nh\u01b0 Methanol, Ethanol, MBTE.

N\u00f3i chung hai lo\u1ea1i\u0111\u1ea7u ti\u00ean l\u00e0 c\u00e1c ngu\u1ed3n ch\u00ednh\u0111\u1ec3 ph\u00f4i tr\u1ed9n, ph\u1ea7n c\u00f2n l\u1ea1i ph\u1ee5 thu\u1ed9c v\u00e0o y\u00eau c\u1ea7u v\u1ec1 ch\u1ea5t l\u01b0\u1ee3ng c\u1ee7a x\u0103ng v\u00e0 y\u00eau c\u1ea7u c\u1ee7a t\u1eebng Qu\u1ed1c gia m\u00e0 ngu\u1ed3n nguy\u00ean li\u1ec7u v\u00e0 h\u00e0m l\u01b0\u1ee3ng c\u1ee7a n\u00f3\u0111\u01b0\u1ee3c ch\u1ecdn kh\u00e1c nhau.

ThS. Tr\u01b0\u01a1ng H\u1eefu Tr\u00ec
S\u1ea3n Ph\u1ea9m D\u1ea7u M\u1ecf Th\u01b0\u01a1ng Ph\u1ea9m
V\u00ed d\u1ee5:
- T\u1ef7 l\u1ec7 c\u1ee7a c\u00e1c ngu\u1ed3n ph\u1ed1i tr\u1ed9n x\u0103ng th\u01b0\u01a1ng ph\u1ea9m\u1edf M\u1ef9 (tr\u01b0\u1edbc n\u0103m 2000)

Naphta nh?

X\u0103ng FCC
- T\u1ef7 l\u1ec7 c\u1ee7a c\u00e1c ngu\u1ed3n ph\u1ed1i tr\u1ed9n x\u0103ng th\u01b0\u01a1ng ph\u1ea9m\u1edf T\u00e2y \u00c2u (tr\u01b0\u1edbc n\u0103m 2000)

Naphta nh?

X\u0103ng FCC
- T\u1ef7 l\u1ec7 ph\u1ed1i tr\u1ed9n\u1edf Ph\u00e1p t\u1eeb n\u0103m 2000
\ue000 Reform at
35% <
< 45%
\ue000X\u0103ng FCC
15% <
< 25%
\ue000 X\u0103ng isomer ho\u00e1 0% <
< 15%
0% <
< 20%
0% <
< 5% (tr\u01b0\u1eddng h\u1ee3p\u0111\u1eb7c bi\u1ec7t <15%)
ThS. Tr\u01b0\u01a1ng H\u1eefu Tr\u00ec

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