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Txn

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Published by: api-3849455 on Oct 19, 2008
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03/18/2014

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C\u00d4NG NGH\ue050 ENZIM
GVC: Ths. Tr\ue03dn Xu\u00e2n Ng\ue037ch
Trang: 1
\ue002\ue032c l\ue032c

Ch\ue035\ue033ng 1: NGUY\u00caN LI\ue050U THU ENZIM V\u00c0 PH\u00c2N B\ue057....................................................................3 1.1. Ngu\ue059n\ue027\ue05dng v\ue042t:........................................................................................................................................3 1.2. Ngu\ue059n g\ue058c th\ue070c v\ue042t:..................................................................................................................................4 1.3. Ngu\ue059n vi sinh v\ue042t:......................................................................................................................................4

Ch\ue035\ue033ng 2:\ue00d\ue038N XU\ue03aT C\u00c1C CH\ue04b PH\ue03eM ENZIM T\ue06b VI SINH V\ue041T............................................5 2.1.\ue02a\ue017\ue04du ho\u00e0 qu\u00e1 tr\u00ecnh sinh t\ue05ang h\ue064p enzim trong m\u00f4i tr\ue035\ue060ng nu\u00f4i c\ue03by vi sinh v\ue042t..............................5 2.2. Tuy\ue04en ch\ue055n v\u00e0 c\ue039i t\ue037o gi\ue058ng vi sinh v\ue042t cho enzim c\u00f3 ho\ue037t l\ue070c cao:...............................................11 2.3. Ph\ue035\ue033ng ph\u00e1p b\ue039o qu\ue039n gi\ue058ng vi sinh v\ue042t :..........................................................................................12 2.4. M\u00f4i tr\ue035\ue060ng nu\u00f4i c\ue03by vi sinh v\ue042t sinh t\ue05ang h\ue064p enzim:......................................................................13 2.5. C\u00e1c ph\ue035\ue033ng ph\u00e1p nu\u00f4i c\ue03by vi sinh v\ue042t:................................................................................................17 2.6. T\u00e1ch v\u00e0 l\u00e0m s\ue037ch ch\ue04c ph\ue03fm enzym :....................................................................................................22

Ch\ue035\ue033ng 3:\ue008\ue073 THU\ue041T S\ue038N XU\ue03aT CH\ue04b PH\ue03eM T\ue06b H\ue036T C\ue057C N\ue03eY M\ue03cM (MALT).........24 3.1. Nguy\u00ean li\ue051u\ue027\ue037i m\ue037ch:............................................................................................................................24 3.2. L\u00e0m s\ue037ch v\u00e0 ph\u00e2n lo\ue037i h\ue037t:.....................................................................................................................25 3.3.\ue00c\ue06da, s\u00e1t tr\u00f9ng v\u00e0 ng\u00e2m h\ue037t:....................................................................................................................26 3.4.\ue00b\ue03fy m\ue03dm:.................................................................................................................................................28 3.5.\ue00d\ue03by malt:....................................................................................................................................................34 3.6. T\u00e1ch m\ue03dm, r\ue04f, b\ue039o qu\ue039n malt:...............................................................................................................37 3.7.\ue008\ue074 thu\ue042t s\ue039n xu\ue03bt m\ue05dt s\ue058 lo\ue037i malt \ue027\ue047c bi\ue051t:.........................................................................................38

Ch\ue035\ue033ng 4:\ue00d\ue038N XU\ue03aT ENZIM T\ue06b TH\ue06fC V\ue041T..................................................................................40 4.1.\ue00d\ue039n xu\ue03bt ureaza t\ue06c\ue000\ue027\ue042u r\ue070a:.....................................................................................................................40 4.2. Thu nh\ue042n bromelain t\ue06c d\ue06aa:..................................................................................................................40

Ch\ue035\ue033ng 5: ENZIM C\ue057\ue000\ue02a\ue053NH.......................................................................................................................44 5.1. Gi\ue05fi thi\ue051u chung:......................................................................................................................................44 5.2.\ue00a\ue05dt s\ue058 ph\ue035\ue033ng ph\u00e1p ch\ue068 y\ue04cu ch\ue04c t\ue037o enzim c\ue058\ue000\ue027\ue054nh :......................................................................44 5.3.\ue00a\ue05dt s\ue058 li\u00ean k\ue04ct trong vi\ue051c c\ue058\ue000\ue027\ue054nh enzim. ............................................................................................45 5.4.\ue038nh h\ue035\ue062ng c\ue068a s\ue070 c\ue058\ue000\ue027\ue054nh \ue027\ue04cn ho\ue037tt\u00ednh c\ue068a enzim. ..........................................................................46 5.5. C\u00e1c reactor ch\ue06aa enzim c\ue058\ue000\ue027\ue054nh:...........................................................................................................48 5.6. . S\ue06d d\ue066ng enzim c\ue058\ue000\ue027\ue054nh trong y h\ue055c v\u00e0 trong c\u00f4ng nghi\ue051p:.............................................................50

Ch\ue035\ue033ng 6: GI\ue05eI THI\ue050U M\ue05cT S\ue057 LO\ue036I ENZIM CH\ue067 Y\ue04bU V\u00c0 KH\ue038 N\ue028NG
\ue069NG
\ue005\ue065NG
55

6.1. Amylaza....................................................................................................................................................55 6.2. Proteaza. ....................................................................................................................................................58 6.3. Pectinaza....................................................................................................................................................60 6.4. Xenluloza:.................................................................................................................................................64

C\u00d4NG NGH\ue050 ENZIM
GVC: Ths. Tr\ue03dn Xu\u00e2n Ng\ue037ch
Trang: 2
6.5. Saccaraza v\u00e0 glucooxydaza. ..................................................................................................................66

Ch\ue035\ue033ng 7: PH\ue034\ue032NG PH\u00c1P X\u00c1C\ue02a\ue053NH HO\ue036T\ue02a\ue05c M\ue05cT S\u00d4 LO\ue036I ENZIM............................68 7.1.\ue02a\ue033n v\ue054\ue000\ue027o ho\ue037t\ue027\ue05d:...................................................................................................................................68 7.2. C\u00e1c ph\ue035\ue033ng ph\u00e1p x\u00e1c\ue027\ue054nh ho\ue037t\ue027\ue05d enzim:.........................................................................................69 7.3. Chu\ue03fn b\ue054 d\ue054ch chi\ue04ct enzim\ue027\ue04e x\u00e1c\ue027\ue054nh ho\ue037\ue020\ue027\ue05d....................................................................................71

C\u00d4NG NGH\ue050 ENZIM
GVC: Ths. Tr\ue03dn Xu\u00e2n Ng\ue037ch
Trang: 3
Ch\ue00e\ue00cng 1:
NGUY\u00caN LI\ue021U THU ENZIM V\u00c0 PH\u00c2N B\ue026
1.1.
Ngu\ue028n\ue008\ue02bng v\ue01at:
1.1.1. Tu\ue071 t\ue037ng: (Pan creas)
\ue02a\u00e2y l\u00e0 ngu\ue059n enzim s\ue05fm nh\ue03bt, l\u00e2u d\u00e0i nh\ue03bt, c\u00f3 ch\ue06aa nhi\ue04du lo\ue037i enzim nh\ue03bt nh\ue035:
tripxin, kimotripxin, cacboxy pectidaza A v\u00e0 B, ribonucleaza, amilaza, lipaza.
+ Tripxin y h\ue055c ph\ue039i l\u00e0 lo\ue037i tinh ch\ue04c.
+\ue069ng d\ue066ng\ue027\ue03du ti\u00ean c\ue068a ch\ue04c ph\ue03fm tripxin l\u00e0 l\u00e0m m\ue04dn da\ue027\ue04e l\ue05dt da, kh\ue06d c\u00e1c v\ue04ct n\ue06at
tr\u00ean da.
+ S\ue039n xu\ue03bt s\ue039n ph\ue03fm thu\ue072 ph\u00e2n protein y h\ue055c (d\ue054ch truy\ue04dn y t\ue04c) v\u00e0 m\u00f4i tr\ue035\ue060ng nu\u00f4i c\ue03by
vsv.
+ Ch\ue04c ph\ue03fm d\ue054ch tu\ue071 y h\ue055c\ue027\ue04e ch\ue06ea b\ue051nh v\ue04d tu\ue071 (r\ue058i lo\ue037n ch\ue06ac n\ue029ng, b\ue054 c\ue043t b\ue056 tu\ue071).
+ S\ue039n xu\ue03bt ch\ue04c ph\ue03fm enzim t\ue03fy r\ue06da (v\ue04ct b\ue03fn, m\u00e0u kh\u00f3 tan)\ue062 nhi\ue051t\ue027 \ue05d v\ue06ca ph\ue039i, kh\u00f4ng
th\u00edch h\ue064p v\ue05fi nhi\ue051t\ue027\ue05d cao v\u00e0 pH thay\ue027\ue05ai.
1.1.2. M\u00e0ng nh\ue03dy d\ue037 d\u00e0y l\ue064n:
L\u00e0 ngu\ue059n enzim pepxin A, B, C, D, gastrisin. C\u00e1c enzim n\u00e0y\ue027 \ue035 \ue064c ti\ue04ct ra ngo\u00e0i t\ue04c b\u00e0o
c\u00f9ng v\ue05fi d\ue054ch v\ue054 ( khi ti\u00eau ho\u00e1 th\ue06ac\ue029n).\ue02a\ue058i v\ue05fi c\u00e1c typ pepxin c\u00f3 pHopt=1.3\u00f72.2.
1.1.3.\ue005\ue037 d\u00e0y b\u00ea:

Trong ng\ue029n th\ue06a t\ue035 c\ue068a d\ue037 d\u00e0y b\u00ea c\u00f3 t\ue059n t\ue037i enzim thu\ue05dc nh\u00f3m Proteaza t\u00ean l\u00e0 renin. Enzim n\u00e0y\ue027\u00e3 t\ue06c l\u00e2u\ue027 \ue035\ue064c s\ue06d d\ue066ng ph\ue05a bi\ue04cn trong c\u00f4ng ngh\ue051 phomat. Renin l\u00e0m bi\ue04cn\ue027 \ue05ai cazein th\u00e0nh paracazein c\u00f3 kh\ue039 n\ue029ng k\ue04ct t\ue068a trong m\u00f4i tr\ue035\ue060ng s\ue06ea c\u00f3\ue027\ue068 n\ue059ng\ue027\ue05d Ca2+.

\ue02a\u00e2y l\u00e0 qu\u00e1 tr\u00ecnh \ue027\u00f4ng t\ue066s\ue06ea r\ue03bt \ue027\ue017\ue04en h\u00ecnh, \ue027\ue035\ue064c nghi\u00ean c\ue06au v\u00e0 \ue06ang d\ue066ng \ue027\ue03dy \ue027\ue068nh\ue03bt.
Trong th\ue070c t\ue04c n\ue04cu ch\ue04c ph\ue03fm renin b\ue054 nhi\ue04fm pepxin (trong tr\ue035\ue060ng h\ue064p thu ch\ue04c ph\ue03fm renin
\ue062 b\u00ea qu\u00e1 th\u00ec. Khi \ue027\u00f3, d\ue037 d\u00e0y b\u00ea \ue027\u00e3 ph\u00e1t tri\ue04en \ue027\ue03dy \ue027\ue068 c\u00f3 kh\ue039n\ue029ng ti\ue04ct ra pepxin) th\u00ec kh\ue039
\ue01b\ue029ng \ue027\u00f4ng t\ue066s\ue06ea k\u00e9 m \ue027i.
\ue006\ue03dn \ue027\u00e2y c\u00f3 nghi\u00ean c\ue06au s\ue039n xu\ue03bt proteaza t\ue06c vsv c\u00f3 \ue027\ue047c t\u00ednh renin nh\ue035\ue000 \ue062 c\u00e1c lo\u00e0i
Eudothia Parasitica v\u00e0 Mucor Purillus.
1.1.4. C\u00e1c lo\ue037i n\ue05di t\ue037ng kh\u00e1c:
Gan, l\u00e1 l\u00e1ch, th\ue042n, ph\ue05ai, c\ue033 ho\u00e0nh tim, d\ue037 con, huy\ue04ct. C\u00e1c lo\ue037i n\u00e0y\ue027 \ue04du c\u00f3 ch\ue06aa enzim,
\ue027a s\ue058t\ue059n t\ue037i trong t\ue04c b\u00e0o. Ch\ue052 c\u00f3 m\ue05dt s\ue058lo\ue037i \ue027\ue035\ue064c s\ue039n xu\ue03bt d\ue035\ue05fi d\ue037ng ch\ue04cph\ue03fm nh\ue035: gan,
tim l\ue064n\ue027\ue04e t\u00e1ch aspartat-glutamat aminotransferaza, huy\ue04ct t\ue035\ue033ng (t\ue06c huy\ue04ct)\ue027\ue04e t\u00e1ch ra
trombia (Proenzim ch\ue058ng\ue027\u00f4ng m\u00e1u)
Nh\u00ecn chung nguy\u00ean li\ue051u\ue027\ue05dng v\ue042t d\u00f9ng\ue027\ue04e t\u00e1ch enzim ph\ue039i t\ue035\ue033i t\ue058t (l\ue03by ngay sau khi
gi\ue04ct m\ue05a) ho\ue047c gi\ue06e\ue000\ue062 -200C c\u00f3 th\ue04e\ue000\ue027\ue035\ue064c 1\u00f712 th\u00e1ng v\ue040n kh\u00f4ng l\u00e0m gi\ue039m ho\ue037t t\u00ednh enzim.

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