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Microgrid Systems and Islanding Scenario

Microgrid Systems and Islanding Scenario

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Microgrids, Islanding, Protection of Microgrids, Controlling Systems
Microgrids, Islanding, Protection of Microgrids, Controlling Systems

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Published by: Isuru Kasthurirathne on Nov 17, 2011
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05/21/2015

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 Abstract
-- Application of individual distributed generators cancause as many problems as it may solve. A better way to realizethe emerging potential of distributed generation is to take asystem approach which views generation and associated loads as
a subsystem or a “Microgrid”. Microgrids are modern, small
-scale versions of the centralized electricity system. This paperpresents an acknowledgement about requirements of theMicrogrids in the system and the working options of it.Microgrids comprise local low-voltage and even medium-voltagedistribution systems with distributed energy resources andstorage devices in order to satisfy the demands of energyconsumers. Such systems can be operated in a semi-autonomousway, if interconnected to the grid, or in an autonomous way(islanding mode), if disconnected from the main grid. In this
paper it is discussed about the conceptual solution “Microgrid”
with operation mode of Islanding.
 Index Terms
-- Microgrids, power system restoration, microgenerators, energy storage, islanded operation
I.
 
INTRODUCTIONhe Microgrid scenario has been selected by the projectsince Microgrids are smart, small-scale versions of futureelectricity systems and therefore will be an integral part of a future smart grid landscape. A smart Microgrid generates,distributes and balances the flow of electricity to consumers,but does so locally. It aggregates and controls largelyautonomously its own supply- and demand-side resources inlow-voltage and even medium-voltage distribution grids. Welldesigned Microgrids produce enough electric energy to meetthe power needs of the users within the Microgrid. Theyachieve specific local goals, such as reliability, carbonemission reduction, diversification of energy sources and costreduction for the community being served.Microgrids will have a massive impact on the future electricitysmart grid architecture and the associated control network.They provide an efficient and economic way to manage anddeliver electricity to a local user base. Economic andenvironmental benefits to smart grid users are maximizedwhile minimizing energy loss through transmission over longdistances. Other savings are achieved through smart use of power and higher efficiency of distributed generation, e.g.through combined heat and power. Furthermore, Microgridswill be able to flexibly offer services to their overlay grid, thusenhancing the possibility to establish new markets andimproving the overall efficiency in electricity supply.Each innovation embodied in the Microgrid concept (i.e.intelligent power electronic interfaces, and a single, smartswitch for grid disconnect and resynchronization) was createdspecifically to lower the cost and improve the reliability of smaller-scale distributed generation systems (i.e., systems with
installed capacities in the 10’s and 100’s of kW). The goal of 
this work is to accelerate realization of the many benefitsoffered by smaller-scale DG (as shown in Figure 1.1), such astheir ability to supply waste heat at the point of need (avoidingextensive thermal distribution networks) or to provide higherpower quality to some but not all loads within a facility.From a grid perspective, the Microgrid concept is attractive
 because it recognizes the reality that the nation’s distribution
system is extensive, old, and will change only very slowly. TheMicrogrid concept enables high penetration of DistributedEnergy Resources (DER) without requiring re-design or re-engineering of the distribution system itself.
Microgrid Systems and Islanding Scenario
W.A.I.S. Kasthurirathne,
Undergraduate, University of Moratuwa-Sri Lanka
 
T
Figure 1.1
 
 
Then it is a must to select appropriate control systems for localgenerators able to correctly manage a Microgrid during itstransition from a grid-connected to an islanded operation, aswell as during its autonomous operation. Hence controlling of a Microgrid should allow each type of generator to operate inboth grid-connected and islanded modes.II.
 
FUNCTIONING
 
OF
 
A
 
MICROGRID
 
Recently, Microgrid technology in small-scale distributedpower generation system combined with power electronicsystem will produce the concept of the future network technologies. A main function of Microgrid is to ensure stableoperation during faults and various network disturbances [1,2].The Microgrid advantages are as follows: i) provide goodsolution to supply power in case of an emergency and powershortage during power interruption in the main grid, ii) plugand play functionality is the features for switching to suitablemode of operation either grid connected or islanded operation,provide voltage and frequency protection during islandedoperation and capability to resynchronize safely connectMicrogrid to the grid , iii) can independently operate withoutconnecting to the main distribution grid during islandingmode, all loads have to be supplied and shared by distributedgenerations. Microgrid allows integration of renewable energygeneration such as photovoltaic, wind and fuel cell generations[3]. Typical Microgrid system comprises of distributedgeneration units with inverters and incorporate control systemsthat enable flexible operations.Generally, it connected to the power delivery system at a pointof common coupling, thus appearing as a controllable singlesubsystem to the utility grid.The Microgrid concept enables high penetration of distributedgeneration without requiring re-design of the distributionsystem. Distributed generation and corresponding loads can beautonomously separated from the distribution system to isolate
the Microgrid’s load from the disturbance during disturbances.
It will intentionally disconnect when the quality of power fromthe grid falls below certain standard [4]. A Microgrid is designto seamlessly separate from the grid when problems in theutility grid arise, reconnecting again once these problems areresolved.Normally, in grid connected mode, the microsources act asconstant power sources, which are controlled to inject thedemanded power into the network. In autonomous mode,microsources are controlled to supply all the power needed bythe local loads while maintaining the voltage and frequencywithin the acceptable operating limits [5].Autonomous operation is realized by opening the static switch,which disconnects the Microgrid from the main grid as shownin Figure-1. Once the Microgrid is isolated from the main grid,the microsources supplies to the system are responsible formaintaining the voltage and frequency while sharing thepower.
Figure 1.2 Microgrid SystemFigure 2.1 Microsource component parts
 
 
 
The bidirectional power flow for both import and export of power is possible during grid-interconnected operation. Inevent of faults, isolation for Microgrid as well asresynchronization is achievable for islanded operation. Duringislanding, each distributed generation unit is able to balancepower and share loads within the Microgridid system [4].The increased penetration of distributed generation inMicrogrid system may provide several technical problems inthe operation of the grid, such as steady state and transientover or under-voltages at the point of connection, protectionmalfunctions, increase in short circuit levels and power qualityproblems [6]. The control and protection of the Microgrid asan autonomous system will also present challenging problems[25].All grid-connected of microsources are required to haveprotection methods that cause the Microsource to stopsupplying power to the utility grid if the frequency oramplitude of the voltage at the point of common couplingbetween the customer and the utility within specified limits.III.
 
MICROGRID
 
ARCHITECTUREIn Microgrid architecturing it involves a Low Voltageelectrical grid, loads (some of them interruptible), controlledand uncontrolled micro sources, storage devices and ahierarchical type management and control scheme supportedby a communication system [7].In this architecture the Microgrid is controlled and managedby a Microgrid Central Controller (MGCC) installed at theMV/LV (Medium Voltage/ Low Voltage) substation. TheMGCC possesses several key functions (such as loadforecasting, demand side management, economic schedulingof micro generators, security assessment, etc.) and heads thehierarchical control system. In a second hierarchical controllevel, controllers located at loads or groups of loads (LC) andcontrollers located at the micro sources (MC) exchangeinformation with the MGCC and control local devices.The whole system operation requires communication andinteraction between two sets of devices: LC on one hand, asinterfaces to control loads through the application of aninterruptability concept, and on the other hand MC controllingmicro generation active and reactive power production levels.The MGCC, as central controller, promotes adequate technical
Figure 3.1 Microgrid Architecture Diagram
 
Figure 3.2 Microgrid with several micro sources, loads,control and management equipment

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