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Linear Algebra by Jim Hefferon

# Linear Algebra by Jim Hefferon

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03/18/2014

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Linear Algebra
Jim Hefferon
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\ue01d
\ue01c13
\ue01d
\ue020\ue020\ue020\ue0201 2
3 1
\ue020\ue020\ue020\ue020
\ue01c21
\ue01d
x1\u00b7
\ue01c13
\ue01d
\ue020\ue020\ue020\ue020x1\u00b71 2
x1\u00b73 1
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\ue01c68\ue01d
\ue020\ue020\ue020\ue0206 2
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Notation
R, R+, Rn
real numbers, reals greater than 0,n-tuples of reals
Nnatural numbers:{0, 1, 2,...}
Ccomplex numbers
{...
\ue020\ue020...}set of . . . such that . . .
(a .. b), [a .. b] interval (open or closed) of reals betweena andb
\ue002...\ue003sequence; like a set but order matters
V,W,Uvector spaces
\ue002v , \ue002
wvectors
\ue0020, \ue0020V
zero vector, zero vector ofV
B, Dbases
En=\ue002\ue002e1, ..., \ue002en\ue003standard basis forRn
\ue002
\u03b2,\ue002\u03b4basis vectors
RepB(\ue002v) matrix representing the vector
Pn
set ofn-th degree polynomials
Mn\u00d7m
set ofn\u00d7m matrices
[S] span of the setS
M\u2295Ndirect sum of subspaces
V\u223c= Wisomorphic spaces
h, ghomomorphisms, linear maps
H, Gmatrices
t, stransformations; maps from a space to itself
T, Ssquare matrices
RepB,D(h) matrix representing the maph
hi,j
matrix entry from rowi, columnj
|T|determinant of the matrixT
R(h), N(h) rangespace and nullspace of the maph
R\u221e(h), N\u221e(h) generalized rangespace and nullspace
Lower case Greek alphabet
name
character name
character name
character
alpha
\u03b1
iota
\u03b9
rho
\u03c1
beta
\u03b2
kappa
\u03ba
sigma
\u03c3
gamma\u03b3
lambda\u03bb
tau
\u03c4
delta
\u03b4
mu
\u00b5
upsilon\u03c5
epsilon\ue003
nu
\u03bd
phi
\u03c6
zeta
\u03b6
xi
\u03be
chi
\u03c7
eta
\u03b7
omicrono
psi
\u03c8
theta
\u03b8
pi
\u03c0
omega
\u03c9
Cover.This is Cramer\u2019s Rule for the systemx1 + 2x2 = 6, 3x1 +x2 = 8. The size of

the \ufb01rst box is the determinant shown (the absolute value of the size is the area). The size of the second box isx1 times that, and equals the size of the \ufb01nal box. Hence,x1 is the \ufb01nal determinant divided by the \ufb01rst determinant.

Preface
This book helps students to master the material of a standard undergraduate
linear algebra course.

The material is standard in that the topics covered are Gaussian reduction, vector spaces, linear maps, determinants, and eigenvalues and eigenvectors. The audience is also standard: sophmores or juniors, usually with a background of at least one semester of Calculus and perhaps with as much as three semesters.

The help that it gives to students comes from taking a developmental ap- proach \u2014 this book\u2019s presentation emphasizes motivation and naturalness, driven home by a wide variety of examples and extensive, careful, exercises. The de- velopmental approach is what sets this book apart, so some expansion of the term is appropriate here.

Courses in the beginning of most Mathematics programs reward students less for understanding the theory and more for correctly applying formulas and algorithms. Later courses ask for mathematical maturity: the ability to follow di\ufb00erent types of arguments, a familiarity with the themes that underly many mathematical investigations like elementary set and function facts, and a capac- ity for some independent reading and thinking. Linear algebra is an ideal spot to work on the transistion between the two kinds of courses. It comes early in a program so that progress made here pays o\ufb00 later, but also comes late enough that students are often majors and minors. The material is coherent, accessible, and elegant. There are a variety of argument styles \u2014 proofs by contradiction, if and only if statements, and proofs by induction, for instance \u2014 and examples are plentiful.

So, the aim of this book\u2019s exposition is to help students develop from being successful at their present level, in classes where a majority of the members are interested mainly in applications in science or engineering, to being successful at the next level, that of serious students of the subject of mathematics itself.

Helping students make this transition means taking the mathematics seri- ously, so all of the results in this book are proved. On the other hand, we cannot assume that students have already arrived, and so in contrast with more abstract texts, we give many examples and they are often quite detailed.

In the past, linear algebra texts commonly made this transistion abrubtly. They began with extensive computations of linear systems, matrix multiplica- tions, and determinants. When the concepts \u2014 vector spaces and linear maps \u2014 \ufb01nally appeared, and de\ufb01nitions and proofs started, often the change brought students to a stop. In this book, while we start with a computational topic,

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