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2) Full Report

2) Full Report

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Published by: api-3784079 on Oct 19, 2008
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03/18/2014

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Introduction
Abstract

A Metal Semiconductor Metal (MSM) structure has been fabricated by metallization of Au(with Cr to increase adhesion) on both the surfaces of a ntypeSi substrate. Metallized circular dots have been formed on one surface by means of photolithography and the other surface was completely metallized. The fabrication process was carried out using conventional technology. Current and Voltage characteristics of the device fabricated, has been studied both theoretically and experimentally under both illuminated and dark condition. The study of surface morphology was performed using FESEM analysis. Theoretical evaluation of carrier concentration, minority carrier diffusion coefficient, minority carrier lifetime and estimation of the surface state density at the metal- semiconductor interface has been performed. Rise in current under illumination of reverse biased junction suggests the photodetective property of the device fabricated and hence provides a step towards careful design of photodetectors in future through more sophisticated fabrication procedure. Defects of the metallization surface and the importance of the process in which metallization should be carried out to yield proper schottky contacts have been studied.

A planar metal-semiconductor-metal photodetector (MSMPD) consists of

interdigitated metal fingers forming Schottky diodes on a semiconductor surface. These detectors are very attractive for many optoelectronic applications,particularly because of their high frequency capability combined with simple, IC compatible processing technology,which enables multi-Gbit optical communication and easy integration. The planar structure of MSM detectors also results in the inherently low capacitance,which is beneficial for the detector sensitivity.The operation of the MSM photodetectors can be classified into two groups according to whether its intrinsic speed is limited by transit time or recombination time .In the first group, the detector speed is tried to be increased by minimizing the finger spacing, which decreases the transit time of the photogenerated charge carriers. In the latter group, the carrier recombination time is shortened by introducing recombination centers into the semiconductor.However, this technique to increase the device speed has its drawbacks: it is not an IC compatible technique and it decreases the sensitivity of the detector.The fastest transit-time-limited GaAs-MSM photodetectors have been fabricated by Chou et al. [1]. By using e-beam lithography they could make detectors having the smallest finger spacing and finger width of 25nm resulting in an estimated impulse response as short as 250fs. Compound semiconductors have been the most studied materials for MSM detectors, but recently also silicon has attracted significant interest[2] due to the low cost substrate material and IC compatibility.In this paper we present the design, fabrication and characterization of MSM photodetectors. We focus on silicon MSM-PDs, but for comparison show also some results for GaAs-MSM detectors made with the same dimensions as the Si-PDs. As a new structure we present a n+- n--structure for the Si-MSM-PD in order to increase the

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device speed. A comparative study of the dufferent types of detectors commonly used is
shown in the schematic below :
Detector Technologies
MSM
(Metal Semiconductor Metal)
PIN
APD
Waveguide
Contact
InP
p 1x1018
Multiplication InP
n 5x1016
Transition
InGaAsP n 1x1016
Absorption
InGaAs n 5x1014
Contact
InP
n 1x1018
Substrate
InP
Semi insulating
Semiinsulating GaAs
Contact
InGaAsP p 5x1018
Absorption
InGaAs n- 5x1014
Contact
InP
n 1x1019
Absorption Layer
Guide Layers
Simple, Planar,
Low Capacitance
Low Quantum Efficiency
Trade-off Between
Quantum efficiency
and Speed
High efficiency
High speed
Difficult to couple into
Gain-Bandwidth:
120GHz
Low Noise
Difficult to make
Complex
Key:
Absorption Layer
Contact layers
Layer Structure
Features

From fabrication point of view ,photoconductor is an attractive device ,but its high dark current and associated Johnson noise makes its unsuitable for high performance communication systems .With proper design ,APD

p-i-n diode can give high responsively and good quantum efficiency, and thus can satisfy most of the detection needs in optical communication systems.However because certain drawbacks like requirements of high bias values, together with requirement of bias stability, and considerable noise associated with avalanche process has renewed interest in other devices such as phototransistors, modulated barrier photodiodes, schottky diode and metal- semiconductor \u2013metal(MSM)diodes .For simplicity of operation and ease of fabrication, schottky diodes and MSM diodes are mostly preferred now a days in communication applications .Since MSM diodes have simple technology, any improvement in responsivity, the current limiting factor to their widespread use,will allow this class of photodetectors to supplant existing photodetectors in the market place.

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Metal-semiconductor-Metal(MSM) photodetectors offer an attractive benefit over
alternative photo detectors such as conventional p-i-n diode.
A MSM photo detector is inherently planar and requires only a single lithography

step , which is compatible with existing Field Effect Transistor(FET)technology-MSM photodetectors have very low dark current.The advantages of a MSM Photodetector can sumamrised in the schematic shown below :

MSM Detectors
Semi insulating GaAs
\u2022Simple to fabricate
\u2022Quantum efficiency: Medium
Problem: Shadowing of absorption
region by contacts
\u2022Capacitance: Low
\u2022Bandwidth: High

Can be increased by thinning absorption layer and backing with a non absorbing material. Electrodes must be moved closer to reduce transit time.

\u2022Compatible with standard electronic processes
GaAs FETS and HEMTs
InGaAs/InAlAs/InP HEMTs
To increase speed
decrease electrode spacing
and absorption depth
Absorption
layer
Non absorbing substrate
E Field
penetrates for
~ electrode spacing
into material
Simplest Version
S chottky barrier
gate metal
Light

To fabricate the MSM device we choose Silicon as the base material. Silicon is the preferred material for semiconductor device fabrication .One of the reasons is that silicon is cheap and easily available due to its abundance in the earths crust. Moreover SiO2 can be easily grown over silicon. SiO2 is used for isolation, junction passivation, and masking and for growing the gate and field oxide layers.

A lot of work has been carried out

in the area and reports are available on the fabrication of the photoreceiver with MSM photodetector and HBT\HEMT as a preamplifier on the same chip in published literature. Very recently MISIM{Metal Insulator Semiconductor Insulator Metal) tunnel transistor has been reported which

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