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Research Paper - Pneumatic Control Systems Design

Research Paper - Pneumatic Control Systems Design

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Published by api-3728508
Automation in Manufacturing (Independent Study Project)
Automation in Manufacturing (Independent Study Project)

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Published by: api-3728508 on Oct 19, 2008
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ME 1000 Sequencing of pneumatic cylinders
INTRODUCTION
Automation is the process of technological development, which is aimed at reducinghuman involvement in performing a task. This process is carried out through the use of electric circuitry, pneumatics and hydraulics. In many industrial applications, such asclamping the work piece and then machining it, it is necessary to ensure that theoperation is done in definite order or sequence.Our group was asked to research on sequencing of pneumatic cylinders and with therelevant knowledge carry out the following experiment:The sequence of operation: A+, B+, C+, A-, C-, B-, D+, D-, is to be initiated on thelaboratory setup. The operation is to be initiated by a manual push button. The electricalcircuit should be designed such that once it is started, the whole operation is carried onautomatically. The next working cycle should be automatically initiated after a time delayof 5 seconds upon the completion of the earlier cycle. The automated operation can only be stopped by pressing an END push-button that stops the recycling at the end of a cycle,and for safety reason, by an Emergency Stop push-button that halts the whole operationinstantaneously.1
 
ME 1000 Sequencing of pneumatic cylinders
SEQUENCING CONTROL
The laboratory setup was as follows:4 solenoid-actuated, spring offset, 2 position valvesPush button switchesLimit SwitchesControl RelaysTimer RelayIn order for the group to wire up the experiment, we had to draw a schematic diagram of the electrical circuit, also known as a ladder diagram.There are a few ways in which we can go about designing the circuit to suit our needs.They are: The Shift Register TechniqueThe CASCADE methodThe Grouping method
The Shift Register Technique
The essential features of The Shift Register Technique is to allow only 1 group of thecontrol circuit to turn “ON” at any one time and to enable each group to be turned “ON”in a predetermined sequence. This technique eliminates the Signal Overlap problem in amulti-cylinder control circuit.To ensure shift register chain to function properly, each group of control circuit in theshift register chain must perform the following 3 basic tasks when it is being activated viaa push button or a limit switch:
Memory -to turn on and latch the CR of its group
Set-to prepare the next group
Reset- to reset the previous groupEach Group is built from a memory CR. There are 2 signals to turn on the memory CR :the essential feedback signal, confirming the completion of the previous sequence step2
 
ME 1000 Sequencing of pneumatic cylinders
and the preparatory signal from the previous group. When the memory CR is turned on, itis supposed to accomplish 3 functions: it provides solenoid valves with a signal commandto extend or retract an actuator; it resets the memory CR of the previous group; and it provides the next group CR with a preparatory signal. Using these steps, we can come outwith a ladder diagram to aid us in the experimental setup.
The CASCADE method
This is a convenient approach for complex problems. It is systematic and isrecommended when using programmable controllers. The sequence is divided intogroups following this rule: A new group must be started the moment it becomesnecessary to shut off any output signal actuated during the presently active group.To put it simply, no letter of the sequence is to be repeated in a single group. Each groupin the sequence is allocated 1 relay. The relay is connected as a RS flip-flop. At any onemoment, only the flip-flop corresponding to the currently active group is set, while theother groups are reset. As one passes from 1 group to the next, the next flip-flop is set andits first task is to reset the previous flip-flop. Resetting the previous flip-flopautomatically shuts off all output signals that were on during the previous group.Ladder-Diagram DesignDue to the set-up in the laboratory, our group has to design an industrial automationsystem of the type: Single Path Sequencing Systems with Sustained Outputs.The cylinder-actuating valve has only one solenoid and a return spring. In order toactivate such a valve into its “+” state, we need to provide a sustained solenoid voltage.Sequence:START / A+, B+, C+ / A-, C-, B-, D+ / D-,3

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