mid-century. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change suggestedthat renewables will most likely contribute more than 17% of the planet’sprimary energy supply by 2030, and more than 27% by 2050.By means of assisting the transition, the UN Industrial DevelopmentOrganisation has developed a regional programme with special focus onSouth-South in Africa, and is looking to replicate this in Latin America andAsia. Moreover, the World Bank Group’s Chief Technical Specialist forRenewable Energy and Energy E
ciency noted that it is possible to rapidly,a
ordably and sustainably provide energy services to the poor throughe
cient technology and renewable fuels (Global). In ﬁscal year 2010, theBank invested more than US$13 billion in the energy sector, the highest-everannual amount. Moreover, since 2003, the Bank has invested about US$17billion in low carbon investments, of which $14.2 billion were in renewableenergy and energy e
ciency. In Turkey, for example, a US$600 million
loanis helping to develop renewable energy through hydro, geothermal, wind andlandﬁll gas, while in Bangladesh the Rural Electriﬁcation and RenewableEnergy Development Project has helped connect more than 900,000households through grid extensions and solar home systems.Looking forwardThe two upcoming global conferences of note are the United Nations ClimateChange Conference to take place in Durban, South Africa, later this year andthe United Nations Conference on Sustainable Development (Rio+20) in Riode Janeiro in 2012. In Durban the future of the Kyoto Protocol andperspectives for a new legally binding agreement will be an important talkingpoint, as the Kyoto Protocol’s ﬁrst commitment period runs out by the endof 2012. Similarly, in Rio de Janeiro the central topics of discussion are‘Green Economy in the Context of Sustainable Development and PovertyEradication’, and ‘International Environmental Governance’.
As noted above, while the globe faces ecological and economic challenges inmoving towards a green economy, not all regions are impacted upon equally.Indeed, particularly a
ected by environmental changes are the developingnations. Acknowledging this disparity, the UN Development Program (UNDP)argues that poverty, energy, and environment are inextricably linked; aposition outlined in its Strategic Plan 2008-2013 (UNDP 2010: 7).Mainstreaming issues concerning the environment and energy into nationaldevelopment planning, the other three pillars of the Plan include: supportingenvironmental ﬁnance, addressing climate change and promoting local